Historic Preservation

Curriculum

Fall 2017

American Architecture

HSPV 521-001, Wunsch

This course is a survey of architecture in the United States. The organization, while broadly chronological, emphasizes themes around which important scholarship has gathered. The central purpose is to acquaint you with major cultural, economic, technological, and environmental forces that have shaped buildings and settlements in North America for the last 400 years. To that end, we will study a mix of “high-style” and “vernacular” architectures while encouraging you to think critically about these categories. Throughout the semester, you will be asked to grapple with both the content of assigned readings (the subject) and the manner in which authors present their arguments (the method). Louis Sullivan, for instance, gives us the tall office building “artistically considered” while Carol Willis presents it as a financial and legal artifact. What do you make of the difference? Finally, you will learn how to describe buildings. While mastery of architectural vocabulary is a necessary part of that endeavor, it is only a starting point. Rich or “thick” description is more than accurate prose. It is integral to understanding the built environment – indeed, to seeing it at all.

Cultural Landscapes and Landscape Preservation

HSPV 538-001, Mason

The course introduces the history and understanding of common American landscapes and surveys the field of cultural landscape studies. Methods of landscape preservation are also surveyed. The cultural-landscape perspective is a unique lens for understanding the evolution of the built environment, the experience of landscapes, and the abstract economic, political and social processes that shape the places where most Americans spend most of their time. The course will focus on the forces and patterns (natural and cultural) behind the shaping of recognizably "American" landscapes, whether urban, suburban, or rural. Methods for documenting and preserving cultural landscapes will be surveyed. Class discussions, readings, and projects will draw on several disciplines--cultural geography, vernacular architecture, environmental history, historic preservation, ecology, art, and more.

American Building Technology

HSPV 540-001, Spivey

Much architectural writing--from Vitruvius to Le Corbusier--has drawn analogous comparisons between buildings and the human body. Like the skeleton, skin, and internal metabolic systems of the human corpus, buildings are comprised of a structure, infrastructure, and outer surface which are all connected and through which liquids, gases and solids pass. Traditionally, form depended in large part on systems of construction and the selection and manipulation of individual materials. Understanding architecture’s materiality in terms of form and fabric, structure and skin, and mechanical systems is essential in understanding not only what a building is, but how it evolves over time. American Building Technology will be divided into two discreet six week modules conceived in succession and taught during the second half of the first semester and first half of the second semester respectively. Module 1: Building Anatomy will examine traditional construction methods through a typological analysis of construction systems. Module 2: Building Archaeology will address the morphological evolution of a structure and its physical setting, sometimes known as “above ground archaeology.” Since the physical fabric and its evidences of cultural alteration present one primary mode of inquiry, archaeological theory and method provide an excellent means to recover, read, and interpret material evidence, especially in association with documentary and archival sources. The course is intended to introduce students in Historic Preservation to the physical realities of built form and its analysis through careful observation and description. Note: This course continues in the first half of the spring semester for another 0.5 CU.

Conservation Science

HSPV 555-001, Matero

This course provides an introduction to architectural conservation and the technical study of traditional building materials. Lectures and accompanying laboratory sessions introduce the nature and composition of these materials, their properties, and mechanisms of deterioration, and the general laboratory skills necessary for field and laboratory characterization. Knowledge of basic college level chemistry is required.

Building Diagnostics and Monitoring

HSPV 552-001, Henry

Building diagnostics pertain to the determination of the nature of a building's condition or performance and the identification of the corresponding causative pathologies by a careful observation and investigation of its history, context and use, resulting in a formal opinion by the professional. Monitoring, a building diagnostic tool, is the consistent observation and recordation of a selected condition or attribute, by qualitative and/or quantitative measures over a period of time in order to generate useful information or data for analysis and presentation. Building diagnostics and monitoring allow the building professional to identify the causes and enabling factors of past or potential pathologies in a building and building systems, thus informing the development appropriate interventions or corrective measures. In the case of heritage buildings, the process informs the selection of interventions that satisfy the stewardship goals for the cultural resource. In the case of recently constructed buildings, the process informs the identification of envelope and systems interventions for improved performance and energy efficiency.

Preservation Through Public Policy

HSPV 572-001, Hollenberg

This course explores the intersection between historic preservation, design and public policy, as it exists and as it is evolving. That exploration is based on the recognition that a network of law and policy at the federal, state and local level has direct and profound impact on the ability to manage cultural resources, and that the pieces of that network, while interconnected, are not necessarily mutually supportive. The fundamental assumption of the course is that the preservation professional must understand the capabilities, deficiencies, and ongoing evolution of this network in order to be effective. The course will look at a range of relevant and exemplary laws and policies existing at all levels of government, examining them through case studies and in-depth analyses of pertinent programs and agencies at the local, state and federal level.

Documentation, Research, Recording I

HSPV 601-001, Ammon/Wunsch

The goal of this course is to help students learn to contextualize the history of buildings and sites. In order to gain first-hand exposure to the actual materials of building histories, we will visit a half-dozen key archival repositories. Students will work directly with historical evidence, including maps, deeds, the census, city directories, insurance surveys, photographs, and many other kinds of archival materials. After discussing each type of document in terms of its nature and the motives for its creation, students will complete a series of projects that develop their facility for putting these materials to effective use. Philadelphia is more our laboratory than a primary focus in terms of content, as the city is rich in institutions that hold over three centuries of such materials; students will find here both an exposure to primary documents of most of the types they might find elsewhere, as well as a sense of the culture of such institutions and of the kinds of research strategies that can be most effective. The final project is the completion of an historic register nomination.

Digital Media for Historic Preservation

HSPV 624-001, Hinchman

A required praxis course designed to introduce students to the techniques and application of digital media for visual and textual communication. Techniques will be discussed for preservation use including survey, documentation, relational databases, and digital imaging and modeling.

Contemporary Desgin in Historic Settings

HSPV 640-301, Hawkes

Thoughtful contemporary design can add value and meaning to historic settings of any scale. Rigorous dialogue with history and context enriches contemporary design. This seminar immerses students in the rewarding yet challenging realm of design with landmarks and existing structures. It will encourage participants to create their own models for design and preservation planning through discussion of source materials that illustrate the political, cultural and aesthetic environments that have shaped regulation and design with heritage throughout the past century. Sketch problems set in Philadelphia and analysis of case studies from around the world will enable students to critique and communicate a range of responses to landmarks and historic contexts, and to explore the roles of significance, physical and intangible conditions in shaping appropriate responses. No prerequisites.

Theories of Historic Preservation

HSPV 660-301, Mason

Theories of historic preservation serve as models for practice, integrating the humanistic, artistic, design, scientific and political understandings of the field. This course examines the historical evolution of historic preservation, reviews theoretical frameworks and issues, and explores current modes of practice. Emphasis is placed on literacy in the standard preservation works and critical assessment of common preservation concepts. In addition to readings and lectures, case studies from contemporary practice will form the basis for short assignments. Professional ethics are reviewed and debated. The instructor’s permission is required for any student not registered in the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation. Note that the course is organized in two parts; the first half, on the basics of preservation theory, is taught in the fall semester while the second half takes place in the spring semester and engages advanced topics. Note: This course continues in the second half of the spring semester for another 0.5 CU.

Historic Preservation Studio

HSPV 701-201/202/203, Mason/Wang/Hawkes

The studio is a practical course in planning architectural, urban and regional conservation interventions, bringing to bear the wide range of skills and ideas at play in the field of historic preservation. Recognizing that historical areas are complex entities where cultural and socio-economic realities, land use, building types, and the legal and institutional setting are all closely interrelated, the main focus of the studio is understanding the cultural significance of the built environment, and the relation of this significance to other economic, social, political and aesthetic values. Through the documentation and analysis of a selected study area, studio teams undertake planning exercises for an historical area, consult with communities and other stakeholders, carry out documentation and historical research, and create policies and projects. The studio seeks to demonstrate how, through careful evaluation of problems and potentials, preservation planning can respond to common conflicts between the conservation of cultural and architectural values and the pressure of social forces, economic interest, and politics. The studio focuses on a specific site in need of comprehensive preservation effort, most often in Philadelphia proper. Students work in teams as well as on individual projects. Consultation with local preservation and planning groups, community representatives, and faculty advisors informs research and analyze the study area, helping to define major preservation planning problems and opportunities, formulate policies, and propose preservation plans and actions.

Conservation Seminar: Wood/Masonry

HSPV 739-301, Fearon/Ingraffia

Pre-requisite: HSPV 555 Conservation Science and permission needed from department. Module 1: Masonry – Roy Ingraffia This seminar will offer an in-depth study of the conservation of masonry buildings and monuments with a particular focus on American building stone. Technical and aesthetic issues will be discussed as they pertain to the understanding required for conservation practice. Part 1 will address a broad range of building stone, masonry construction technologies, and deterioration phenomenon; Part 2 will concentrate on conservation methodology as well as past and current approaches for the treatment of stone masonry structures. The subject will be examined through published literature and case studies. Students will gain practical experience through lab and field exercises and demonstrations. The subject matter is relevant to interested students of conservation and preservation, architecture, landscape architecture, architectural history, and archaeology. Module 2: Wood – Andrew Fearon Prior to the twentieth century, most structures found in the built environment relied upon wood as a primary material for both structural members and decorative features. An understanding of the physical properties as well as the historic application of this organic material provides the basis for formulating solutions for a wide spectrum of conservation issues. As the scope of preserving wooden structures and wooden architectural elements is continually broadened, new methods and technology available to the conservator together allow for an evolving program – one that is dependent upon both consistent review of treatments and more in depth study of craft traditions. This course seeks to illustrate and address material problems typically encountered by stewards of wooden cultural heritage – among them structural assessment, bio-deterioration, stabilization and replication techniques. Through a series of lectures and hands-on workshops given by representative professionals from the fields of wood science, conservation, entomology, engineering, and archeology, theoretical and practical approaches to retaining wooden materials will be examined with the goal to inform the decision making process of future practicing professionals.

Summer 2017

Architectural Conservation Praxis; Traditional Buildings / Traditional Practice

HSPV 750-901, Matero

Travel dates: June 19, 2017 – July 8, 2017. Instructor: Frank Matero and guest faculty. 1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV 540, 541 and 555. Architectural Conservation Praxis is an intensive 3-week summer course designed for students pursuing studies in architectural conservation and builds on Penn Preservation’s core curriculum and the first-year conservation courses. The syllabus is organized around project fieldwork supplemented by lectures, demonstrations, exercises, and site visits that will allow students to experience firsthand the design and construction of vernacular buildings and the application of traditional craft-based methods to preserve them. Through a partnership with the National Park Service and the Vanishing Treasures Program, students will engage in the recording, survey, and treatment of timber and masonry structures under the supervision of Penn, NPS, and guest faculty. For Summer 2017, the course will again be based at Bar BC Dude Ranch in Grand Teton National Park. Students will work with instructors on traditional construction methods including log, timber, and stone masonry. The course will also examine preservation issues related to the rich vernacular landscape and National Park heritage with visits to other sites in the area. This year participants will be able to attend the NPS “Guiding Principles for Historic Resources” workshop offered by the Western Center for Historic Preservation at White Grass Training Center within the park. Accommodation will be shared rooms at 4 Lazy F, a restored early 20th century family dude ranch with a full kitchen, bathrooms, and laundry facility. Students are requested to bring laptops, cameras, sleeping bags and all personal items. More information is available here: http://www.conlab.org/acl/edtr/Praxis/edtr_praxis.html Course enrollment is by permit only. Please contact Amanda Bloomfield (HSPV Dept.) at amab@design.upenn.edu.

Preservation Planning Praxis: New Urban Agenda and Cultural Heritage

HSPV 760-901, Rypkema

1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV 540, 541, 600, 601, 660, 661; HSPV 572 or 625 or other planning-centered coursework. This course is designed to meet two broad learning outcomes: first, solidify student's knowledge of basic city and regional planning concepts, systems and methods as applied to historic cities; second, and more extensively, apply this knowledge in a practical situation relevant to contemporary preservation planning practice. The course will be conducted over three weeks in the early summer and will have two distinct components: a short, first part of the course will be held in Philadelphia over three days in late May. It will focus on readings, lectures, and workshops about preservation planning in general; Randy Mason will lead this part of the course. The second, international part of the course will take place in Galway, Ireland. Most if not all travel and lodging will be paid by the course budget – details to come. This two-to-three-week praxis course is designed to give students an intense and concentrated “hands-on” experience in preservation planning methods, practice, research, communication and collaboration; these experiences are heightened by pursuing heritage conservation planning in a non-US setting. This year’s class will be from June 4 through June 16 and will include up to 10 students. Professor Rypkema will lead the field portion of the course, aided by a Teaching Assistant. The focus of the class will be identifying and recommending ways that a municipality can implement the commitments in the New Urban Agenda (https://habitat3.org/the-new-urban-agenda) that include cultural heritage references. In October 2016 190 nations meeting in Quito, Ecuador, committed to the implementation of the New Urban Agenda. The reality is, however, that the real implementation will be at the city level – and this will vary given the resources, governance, markets and professional capacity of each municipality. The first week on-site will be primarily lectures, including importantly from lectures from local officials and experts, tours, and formal and informal discussions with local heritage advocates, public officials, and other stakeholders. The second week will be spent identifying and documenting policy areas currently in operation that could be modified to include the NUA comments and in developing and recommending new policies that might be adopted. These findings will be prepared in both written and oral reports, and on Thursday giving a public presentation of the findings. It is anticipated that the students and other participants will be divided into six teams, each addressing one of the germane NUA commitments. Each team would be composed of Penn students and local and/or regional participants. Course enrollment is by permit only. Please contact Amanda Bloomfield (HSPV Dept.) at amab@design.upenn.edu.

Site Management, Interpretation and Conservation Praxis

HSPV 770-901, Mason

1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV 540, 541, 600 and 601; 606 preferred; 551 and 555 for conservation-focused students. Instructors: Pamela Hawkes, Laura Keim, Randy Mason and guest faculty. This course is designed to meet two broad learning outcomes: first, solidify graduate students' basic knowledge of site management and interpretation issues and process; second, document and interpret complex sites using historical research, landscape reading and architectural archaeology methods. The course will be conducted over three weeks in the early summer focused on the site of Powderham in Devon, England -- in partnership with Professor Daniel Maudlin, University of Plymouth, and the Earl of Devon. While the course will deal with the whole of the Powderham Estate, student projects will focus on several particular features requiring investigation and interpretation. Overall, the course will focus on a site management framework for the estate, a complex of several historic buildings and landscapes. Extensive background documentation will be available for analysis. Students will also work in smaller groups to pursue specific on-site projects and investigations; these will relate to architectural archaeology of the Great Hall and Library, investigation and interpretation of a derelict American Garden, and other elements of the estate to be determined. Accommodations will be provided in a restored stable on the grounds. Course enrollment is by permit only. Please contact Amanda Bloomfield (HSPV Dept.) at amab@design.upenn.edu.

Spring 2017

American Domestic Interiors

HSPV 531-001, Keim

This course will examine the American domestic interior from the seventeenth century through the twentieth century with emphasis on the cultural, economic, and technological forces that determined the decoration and furnishing of the American home. Topics to be covered include the decorative arts; floor, wall and window treatments; and developments in lighting, heating, plumbing, food preparation and service, and communication technologies. In addition to the identification of period forms and materials, the course will give special emphasis to historical finishes. The final project will involve re-creation of an historic interior based on in-depth household inventory analysis and study. Several class periods will be devoted to off-site field trips.

American Building Technology II: Building Archaeology

HSPV 541-001, Matero

Note: This course meets for the first half of the term, 1/11/2017-3/3/2017. Built works— be they barns or bridges, gardens or corn fields, palaces or pit houses – all embody something of their makers and users, and the prevailing social and cultural norms of the day. As a form of material culture, things-buildings and landscapes- are made and modified consciously and unconsciously, reflecting individual and societal forces at play. Since the physical fabric and its f alteration present one primary mode of evidence, their investigation provides a critical form of research, especially in association (and often in contest) with archival documentary sources and oral histories. This course will examine the theories and techniques used to investigate the morphological evolution of built works, sometimes known as “above ground archaeology”. Students will learn and apply methods relevant to the reading of architectural fabric. Methods of investigation will include absolute and relative dating techniques such as dendrochronology, finishes stratigraphy, mortar analysis, and various typological - seriation studies including framing, molding, fastener (nails and screws), and hardware analyses. Students are expected to use this knowledge in combination with the recording skills of HSPV 601 to record their assigned sites.

Building Pathology

HSPV 551-001, Henry

This course addresses the subject of deterioration of buildings, their materials, assemblies and systems, with the emphasis on the technical aspects of the mechanisms of deterioration and their enabling factors, material durability and longevity of assemblies. Details of construction and assemblies are analyzed relative to functional and performance characteristics. Lectures cover: concepts in durability; climate, psychrometric, soils & hydrologic conditions; physics of moisture in buildings; enclosure, wall and roof systems; structural systems; and building services systems with attention to performance, deterioration, and approaches to evaluation of remedial interventions. Prerequisite(s): HSPV 555 or one technical course in architecture.

Conservation Science

HSPV 555-001, Matero

This course provides an introduction to architectural conservation and the technical study of traditional building materials. Lectures and accompanying laboratory sessions introduce the nature and composition of these materials, their properties, and mechanisms of deterioration, and the general laboratory skills necessary for field and laboratory characterization. Knowledge of basic college level chemistry is required.

Documentation, Research, Recording II

HSPV 601-001/101, Wunsch

This course provides an introduction to the survey and recording of historic buildings and their sites. Techniques of recording include photography and traditional as well as digitally-based quantitative methods including measured drawings and rectified photography. Emphasis is on the use of appropriate recording tools in the context of a thorough understanding of the historical significance and function of the site.

Historic Site Management

HSPV 606-001, Young

This course focuses on management, planning, and decision making for all types of heritage sites from individual buildings to historic sites to whole landscapes. Course material will draw on model approaches to management, as well as a series of domestic and international case studies, with the goal of understanding the practicalities of site management. Particular topics to be examined in greater detail might include conservation policy, interpretation, tourism, or economic development strategies.

Social Justice Seminar

HSPV 621-301, Mason

How do historic preservation and other design professionals contribute to more equitable and just societies? How can our work be organized to result in greater equity, access and social justice? This seminar will explore connections between historic preservation (and related design, planning and artistic practices) and the pursuit of social justice. Our investigations will focus on both conceptual and theoretical constructions (how we think about social justice) and practical examples of advancing social outcomes through preservation and design. We’ll draw on work by: geographers, anthropologists and other social scientists and theorists; historians; design practitioners; heritage organizations; artists; and more. Subjects will include public interest design, creative placemaking, public art, memorialization, and methods of practice and institutional organization. The course will progress through a series of weekly topics, often including guest practitioners and scholars. Students will bear significant responsibility for helping flesh out the topics and cases we study; final projects (individual and group) will be envisioned as a statement (in the form of a book or exhibit) of how social justice concerns have reshaped practice and how they could reshape our fields in the future.

Paris & Philadelphia: Landscape and Literature of the 19th Century

HSPV 620-401 / FREN 620-401, Goulet/Wunsch

This course explores the literal and literary landscapes of 19th-century Paris and Philadelphia, with particular attention to the ways in which the built environment is shaped by and shapes shifting ideologies in the modern age. Although today the luxury and excesses of the “City of Light” may seem worlds apart from the Quaker simplicity of the “City of Brotherly Love”, Paris and Philadelphia saw themselves as partners and mutual referents during the 1800s in many areas, from urban planning to politics, prisons to paleontology. This interdisciplinary seminar will include readings from the realms of literature, historical geography, architectural history, and cultural studies as well as site visits to Philadelphia landmarks, with a view to uncovering overlaps and resonances among different ways of reading the City. We will facilitate in-depth research by students on topics relating to both French and American architectural history, literature, and cultural thought.

Preservation Economics

HSPV 625-001, Rypkema

The primary objective is to prepare the student, as a practicing preservationist, to understand the language of the development community, to make the case through feasibility analysis why a preservation project should be undertaken, and to be able to quantify the need for public/non-profit intervention in the development process. A second objective is to acquaint the student with measurements of the economic impact of historic preservation and to critically evaluate "economic hardship" claims made to regulatory bodies by private owners.

Theories of Historic Preservation II

HSPV 661-301, Mason

Note: This course meets for the second half of the term, 3/13/2017-4/26/2017 Theories of historic preservation serve as models for practice, integrating the humanistic, artistic, design, scientific and political understandings of the field. This course examines the historical evolution of historic preservation, reviews theoretical frameworks and issues, and explores current modes of practice. Emphasis is placed on literacy in the standard preservation works and critical assessment of common preservation concepts. In addition to readings and lectures, case studies from contemporary practice will form the basis for short assignments. Professional ethics are reviewed and debated. The instructor’s permission is required for any student not registered in the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation. Note that the course is organized in two parts; the first half, on the basics of preservation theory, is taught in the fall semester while the second half takes place in the spring semester and engages advanced topics.

Pienza Studio/Seminar

HSPV 703-301, Mason

This hybrid seminar-studio course will explore advanced topics in urban conservation and landscape preservation through application to the challenges of Italian case studies, principally Pienza. This Tuscan town possesses several highly significant layers of urban history, a rich set of connections to the regional landscape, and significant challenges from tourism. Planning, design and preservation interventions in this context will be a practical focus of the studio aspects of the course. (Other case studies in Italy will also be presented, including Rome’s Centro and the archaeological site of Cosa.) The seminar components of the course will delve into the literature on urban conservation in Italy and elsewhere. The course will run in parallel to – and collaboration with – a Landscape Architecture studio led by Laurie Olin. Travel to Italy during March’s spring break is planned. Permission of department required to enroll. Please email Program Coordinator Amanda Bloomfield: amab@design.upenn.edu.

Professional Practice & Architectural Conservation

HSPV 713-301, Krotzer

This course is intended to introduce students to the professional practice of architectural conservation and illustrate how the technical knowledge gained through their academic studies is applied in the real world. It will include a discussion of the role of the architectural conservator within the larger preservation and restoration fields, as well as the concept of professional leadership. A significant portion of the course will be dedicated to project management--from writing a proposal to developing and implementing a work plan for a conservation project. The project management portion of the course will also review the typical progression of a project through design and construction phases, highlighting the role that the conservator plays in both. The course will include: lectures; site visits to current or recently completed conservation projects; in-class discussions and assignments related to typical tasks and challenges faced by architectural conservators in their daily professional life; and guest lecturers discussing the importance of inter-disciplinary collaboration. Permission of department required to enroll. Please email Program Coordinator Amanda Bloomfield: amab@design.upenn.edu.

Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites & Landscapes

HSPV 747-401 / ANTH 508-401, Erickson/Matero

Archaeological sites and landscapes have long been considered places of historical and cultural significance and symbols of national and ethnic identity. More recently they have offered new opportunities for economic and touristic development in both urban and rural settings. With a unique set of physical conditions including fragmentation, illegibility, extreme environmental exposure and material deterioration, as well as contested ownership and control, their conservation, management, and interpretation as heritage places require special knowledge and methodologies for both heritage specialists and archaeologists. This seminar will address the history, theories, principles, and practices of the preservation and interpretation of archaeological sites and landscapes. The course will draw from a wide range of published material and experiences representing both national and international contexts. Topics will include site and landscape documentation and recording; site formation and degradation; intervention strategies including interpretation and display, legislation, policy, and contemporary issues of descendent community ownership. The course will be organized as a seminar incorporating readings, lectures and discussions on major themes defining the subject of ruins and archaeological site conservation. Readings have been selected to provide exposure to seminal works in the development of theory and method as well as current expressions of contemporary practice. This will set the background for the selected case study site which will provide students the opportunity to work with primary and secondary materials related to archaeological and ruin sites: excavation reports, stabilization work, conservation and interpretation plans, etc. Depending on the site, students will study specific issues leading toward the critique or development of a conservation and management program in accordance with guidelines established by ICOMOS/ ICAHM and other official agencies (e.g., national legislation such as NPS-28).

Summer 2016

Architectural Conservation Praxis: Traditional Buildings/Traditional Practice

HSPV 750-901, Matero & Guest Faculty

Description: 1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV-540 or HSPV-555. This is an intensive 4 week summer course designed for students pursuing studies in architectural conservation and builds on Penn Preservation’s core curriculum and the first year conservation technology courses. The syllabus is organized around project fieldwork supplemented by lectures, demonstrations, exercises, and site visits that will allow students to experience firsthand the design and construction of vernacular buildings and the application of traditional craft-based methods to preserve them. Through a partnership with the National Park Service and the Vanishing Treasures Program, students will engage in the recording, survey, and treatment of timber and masonry structures under the supervision of Penn, NPS, and guest faculty. The course will be based in Mancos, Colorado for the first two weeks during which time students will work with instructors on traditional construction methods including timber, brick masonry, and adobe. Students will then focus their final two weeks on field projects at selected NPS parks including Bar BC Dude Ranch at Grand Teton National Park, WY and Mesa Verde, CO. The course will also examine preservation issues related to the rich vernacular landscape and National Park heritage with visits to other sites in the area. Accommodation will be shared cabins and meals will be a communal event and prepared by a cook. Weekends (Saturday and Sunday) are free and on your own. Cost for meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) will be $20/day and some travel will be paid by the course budget – details to come. Students are requested to bring laptops, cameras, sleeping bags and all personal items. More information is available at http://www.conlab.org/acl/edtr/Praxis/edtr_praxis.html. Course enrollment is by permit only. Please contact the HSPV Dept. at pennhspv@design.upenn.edu. Course dates: 7/25/2016-8/20/2016.

Preservation Planning Praxis

HSPV 760-901, Rypkema/Mason

Description: 1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV 572 or 625 or other planning-centered coursework. This course is designed to meet two broad learning outcomes: first, solidify student's knowledge of basic city and regional planning concepts, systems and methods as applied to historic cities; second, and more extensively, apply this knowledge in a practical situation relevant to contemporary preservation planning practice. The course will be conducted over three weeks in the early summer and will have two distinct components: a short, first part of the course will be held in Philadelphia over three days in late May. It will focus on readings, lectures, and discussions about preservation planning in general; Randy Mason will lead this part of the course. The second, international part of the course will take place in Yangon, the capital of Myanmar. Lasting approximately two weeks, the course's international component will center on the application of preservation-led planning and development strategies to the dynamic center of this large Asian city. Some travel will be paid by the course budget – details to come. Course enrollment is by permit only. Please contact the HSPV Dept. at pennhspv@design.upenn.edu. Course dates: 6/4/2016-6/16/2016

Interpretation, Public History and Site Management Praxis

HSPV 770-901, Mason

Description: 1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV 600 and 601; 606 preferred. This course is designed to meet two broad learning outcomes: first, solidify graduate students' basic knowledge of public history issues and process; second, apply research and communication skills to the interpretation of specific heritage sites in the context of professional site management. The course will be conducted over three weeks in the early summer and will have two distinct components. The first part of the course will be held on campus over the first week of the three-week course. It will focus on three overall subjects: close reading and debate of the literature on public history, review of case studies, and guest lectures; lectures on interpretation best-practices and philosophies; workshops on interpretive tools. The second part of the course will take place at heritage sites all along the East Coast (specific list TBD, to include sites in New York, Washington and points between). Focus of this fieldwork will be evaluation of sites’ management and interpretive experiences. The third part of the course is centered on Cliveden and its regional connections to former plantations in Delaware. Students will work with archives and site experiences to research, design and implement an interpretation project. Some travel will be paid by the course budget – details to come. Course enrollment is by permit only. Please contact the HSPV Dept. at pennhspv@design.upenn.edu.

FALL 2016

Building Diagnostics and Monitoring

HSPV 552-001, Henry

Building diagnostics pertain to the determination of the nature of a building's condition or performance and the identification of the corresponding causative pathologies by a careful observation and investigation of its history, context and use, resulting in a formal opinion by the professional. Monitoring, a building diagnostic tool, is the consistent observation and recordation of a selected condition or attribute, by qualitative and/or quantitative measures over a period of time in order to generate useful information or data for analysis and presentation. Building diagnostics and monitoring allow the building professional to identify the causes and enabling factors of past or potential pathologies in a building and building systems, thus informing the development appropriate interventions or corrective measures. In the case of heritage buildings, the process informs the selection of interventions that satisfy the stewardship goals for the cultural resource. In the case of recently constructed buildings, the process informs the identification of envelope and systems interventions for improved performance and energy efficiency.

American Architecture

HSPV 521-001, Wunsch

This course is a survey of architecture in the United States. The organization, while broadly chronological, emphasizes themes around which important scholarship has gathered. The central purpose is to acquaint you with major cultural, economic, technological, and environmental forces that have shaped buildings and settlements in North America for the last 400 years. To that end, we will study a mix of “high-style” and “vernacular” architectures while encouraging you to think critically about these categories. Throughout the semester, you will be asked to grapple with both the content of assigned readings (the subject) and the manner in which authors present their arguments (the method). Louis Sullivan, for instance, gives us the tall office building “artistically considered” while Carol Willis presents it as a financial and legal artifact. What do you make of the difference? Finally, you will learn how to describe buildings. While mastery of architectural vocabulary is a necessary part of that endeavor, it is only a starting point. Rich or “thick” description is more than accurate prose. It is integral to understanding the built environment – indeed, to seeing it at all.

Cultural Landscapes & Landscape Preservation

HSPV 538-001, Mason

The course introduces the history and understanding of common American landscapes and surveys the field of cultural landscape studies. Methods of landscape preservation are also surveyed. The cultural-landscape perspective is a unique lens for understanding the evolution of the built environment, the experience of landscapes, and the abstract economic, political and social processes that shape the places where most Americans spend most of their time. The course will focus on the forces and patterns (natural and cultural) behind the shaping of recognizably "American" landscapes, whether urban, suburban, or rural. Methods for documenting and preserving cultural landscapes will be surveyed. Class discussions, readings, and projects will draw on several disciplines--cultural geography, vernacular architecture, environmental history, historic preservation, ecology, art, and more.

American Building Technology

HSPV 540-001, Matero

Much architectural writing--from Vitruvius to Le Corbusier--has drawn analogous comparisons between buildings and the human body. Like the skeleton, skin, and internal metabolic systems of the human corpus, buildings are comprised of a structure, infrastructure, and outer surface which are all connected and through which liquids, gases and solids pass. Traditionally, form depended in large part on systems of construction and the selection and manipulation of individual materials. Understanding architecture’s materiality in terms of form and fabric, structure and skin, and mechanical systems is essential in understanding not only what a building is, but how it evolves over time. American Building Technology will be divided into two discreet six week modules conceived in succession and taught during the second half of the first semester and first half of the second semester respectively. Module 1: Building Anatomy will examine traditional construction methods through a typological analysis of construction systems. Module 2: Building Archaeology will address the morphological evolution of a structure and its physical setting, sometimes known as “above ground archaeology.” Since the physical fabric and its evidences of cultural alteration present one primary mode of inquiry, archaeological theory and method provide an excellent means to recover, read, and interpret material evidence, especially in association with documentary and archival sources. The course is intended to introduce students in Historic Preservation to the physical realities of built form and its analysis through careful observation and description. Note: This course continues in the first half of the spring semester for another 0.5 CU.

Preservation through Public Policy

HSPV 572-001, Hollenberg

This course explores the intersection between historic preservation, design and public policy, as it exists and as it is evolving. That exploration is based on the recognition that a network of law and policy at the federal, state and local level has profound impact on the ability to manage cultural resources, and that the pieces of that network, while interconnected, are not necessarily mutually supportive. The fundamental assumption of the course is that the preservation professional must understand the capabilities, deficiencies, and ongoing evolution of this network in order to be effective. The course will look at a range of relevant and exemplary laws and policies existing at all levels of government, examining them through case studies and in-depth analyses of pertinent programs and agencies at the local, state and federal level.

Documentation, Research, Recording I

HSPV 600-001, Wunsch

The goal of this class is to help students develop their understanding and utilization of materials that contextualize the history of buildings and sites. In order to gain first-hand exposure to the actual materials of building histories, we will visit a half-dozen key archival repositories. Students will work directly with historical evidence—both textual and graphic—and exercise their facility through projects. We will explore various forms of documentation, discussing each in terms of its nature, the motives for its creation, and some ways it might find effective use. Philadelphia is more our laboratory than a primary focus in terms of content, as the city is rich in institutions that hold over three centuries of such materials; students will find here both an exposure to primary documents of most of the types they might find elsewhere, as well as a sense of the culture of such institutions and of the kinds of research strategies that can be most effective.

Digital Media for Historic Preservation

HSPV 624-001/101, Hinchman

A required praxis course designed to introduce students to the techniques and application of digital media for visual and textual communication. Techniques will be discussed for preservation use including survey, documentation, relational databases, and digital imaging and modeling.

Contemporary Design in Historic Settings

HSPV 640-301, Hawkes

Thoughtful contemporary design can add value and meaning to historic settings of any scale. Rigorous dialogue with history and context enriches contemporary design. This seminar immerses students in the rewarding yet challenging realm of design with landmarks and existing structures. It will encourage participants to create their own models for design and preservation planning through discussion of source materials that illustrate the political, cultural and aesthetic environments that have shaped regulation and design with heritage throughout the past century. Sketch problems set in Philadelphia and analysis of case studies from around the world will enable students to critique and communicate a range of responses to landmarks and historic contexts, and to explore the roles of significance, physical and intangible conditions in shaping appropriate responses. Prerequisites: HSPV 660 Theories of Historic Preservation and HSPV 624 Digital Media for Historic Preservation (or its equivalent), or permission of the instructor.

Advanced Conservation Science

HSPV 656-001/101, Faculty

Prerequisite(s): HSPV 555, Conservation Science or Permission of the Instructor. A methodological approach to the examination and analysis of historic building materials is introduced. Experimental design for conducting conservation research plus statistical analysis and modeling of research data will further complete the discussion. Practical analytical techniques appropriate for conservation practice including: classical and advanced instrumental techniques for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic materials will be discussed. Theoretical and practical applications of advanced surface techniques for both elemental and molecular/composition analysis as well as applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in conservation will be covered. Students will also learn about deterioration processes and long term effects of conservation treatments through accelerated aging techniques. Course materials will be taught through lectures, invited speakers, lab visits and laboratory sessions by practicing learned techniques and procedures on related masonry samples, along with provided course readings and literature.

Theories of Historic Preservation

HSPV 660-301, Mason

Theories of historic preservation serve as models for practice, integrating the humanistic, artistic, design, scientific and political understandings of the field. This course examines the historical evolution of historic preservation, reviews theoretical frameworks and issues, and explores current modes of practice. Emphasis is placed on literacy in the standard preservation works and critical assessment of common preservation concepts. In addition to readings and lectures, case studies from contemporary practice will form the basis for short assignments. Professional ethics are reviewed and debated. The instructor’s permission is required for any student not registered in the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation. Note that the course is organized in two parts; the first half, on the basics of preservation theory, is taught in the fall semester while the second half takes place in the spring semester and engages advanced topics. Note: This course continues in the second half of the spring semester for another 0.5 CU.

Historic Preservation Studio

HSPV 701-201, Mason/Wang/Hawkes

The studio is a practical course in planning architectural, urban and regional conservation interventions, bringing to bear the wide range of skills and ideas at play in the field of historic preservation. Recognizing that historical areas are complex entities where cultural and socio-economic realities, land use, building types, and the legal and institutional setting are all closely interrelated, the main focus of the studio is understanding the cultural significance of the built environment, and the relation of this significance to other economic, social, political and aesthetic values. Through the documentation and analysis of a selected study area, studio teams undertake planning exercises for an historical area, consult with communities and other stakeholders, carry out documentation and historical research, and create policies and projects. The studio seeks to demonstrate how, through careful evaluation of problems and potentials, preservation planning can respond to common conflicts between the conservation of cultural and architectural values and the pressure of social forces, economic interest, and politics. The studio focuses on a specific site in need of comprehensive preservation effort, most often in Philadelphia proper. Students work in teams as well as on individual projects. Consultation with local preservation and planning groups, community representatives, and faculty advisors informs research and analyze the study area, helping to define major preservation planning problems and opportunities, formulate policies, and propose preservation plans and actions.

Conservation Seminar: Masonry/Wood

HSPV 739-301, Ingraffia/Fearon

Pre-requisite: HSPV 555 Conservation Science and permission needed from department. Module 1: Masonry – Roy Ingraffia This seminar will offer an in-depth study of the conservation of masonry buildings and monuments with a particular focus on American building stone. Technical and aesthetic issues will be discussed as they pertain to the understanding required for conservation practice. Part 1 will address a broad range of building stone, masonry construction technologies, and deterioration phenomenon; Part 2 will concentrate on conservation methodology as well as past and current approaches for the treatment of stone masonry structures. The subject will be examined through published literature and case studies. Students will gain practical experience through lab and field exercises and demonstrations. The subject matter is relevant to interested students of conservation and preservation, architecture, landscape architecture, architectural history, and archaeology. Module 2: Wood – Andrew Fearon Prior to the twentieth century, most structures found in the built environment relied upon wood as a primary material for both structural members and decorative features. An understanding of the physical properties as well as the historic application of this organic material provides the basis for formulating solutions for a wide spectrum of conservation issues. As the scope of preserving wooden structures and wooden architectural elements is continually broadened, new methods and technology available to the conservator together allow for an evolving program – one that is dependent upon both consistent review of treatments and more in depth study of craft traditions. This course seeks to illustrate and address material problems typically encountered by stewards of wooden cultural heritage – among them structural assessment, bio-deterioration, stabilization and replication techniques. Through a series of lectures and hands-on workshops given by representative professionals from the fields of wood science, conservation, entomology, engineering, and archeology, theoretical and practical approaches to retaining wooden materials will be examined with the goal to inform the decision making process of future practicing professionals.

Special Topics: American Marble

HSPV 741-301, Matero

Nearly every culture in the Old and New World has made use of natural stone for its buildings and monuments, whether as found rubble or ledge rock, cut and dressed load-bearing dimensional stone, or thin veneer cladding on a brick, steel or concrete frame. In North America, indigenous cultures of the Southwest demonstrated a highly sophisticated and long-lived tradition of masonry building long before European contact as evidenced by the surviving structures at Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde, and other ancient settlements. Beginning with the Spanish construction of massive masonry fortifications and churches in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in New Spain and the rise of academic classicism in the eighteenth century European-American colonies, the preference for building in stone has carried well into the present despite changes in taste and technology. Ideologically as well as functionally, stone construction has embodied and connoted permanence and durability wherever it is found. There is an abundant variety of stone in the United States and virtually every variety of rock firm enough to hold together has been put to use as building stone. The restoration and conservation of historic masonry structures represent a major component of the architectural and construction industry yet little technical information is readily available on the nature of these obsolete materials or on the appropriate methods for their repair and restoration. This seminar will offer an in depth study of American marble utilizing the newly acquired archives and stone collection of the Vermont Marble Company. Aesthetic and technical issues will be discussed as they pertain to the total understanding required for conservation practice. Part 1 will focus on the characterization and deterioration of marble and the technology related to its extraction and use in architecture and monument design and construction. The subject will be examined through research topics related to the Vermont Marble collection. Part 2 will concentrate on past and current methods for the treatment of marble with a focus on the Hood Cemetery Entrance Gate in Germantown. The subject matter is relevant to interested students of conservation and preservation, architecture, landscape architecture, architectural history, and archaeology.

SPRING 2016

American Domestic Interiors

HSPV 531-001, Keim

This course will examine the American domestic interior from the seventeenth century through the twentieth century with emphasis on the cultural, economic, and technological forces that determined the decoration and furnishing of the American home. Topics to be covered include the decorative arts; floor, wall and window treatments; and developments in lighting, heating, plumbing, food preparation and service, and communication technologies. In addition to the identification of period forms and materials, the course will give special emphasis to historical finishes. The final project will involve re-creation of an historic interior based on in-depth household inventory analysis and study. Several class periods will be devoted to off-site field trips.

American Building Technology II: Building Archaeology

HSPV 541-001, Matero

Built works— be they barns or bridges, gardens or corn fields, palaces or pit houses – all embody something of their makers and users, and the prevailing social and cultural norms of the day. As a form of material culture, things-buildings and landscapes- are made and modified consciously and unconsciously, reflecting individual and societal forces at play. Since the physical fabric and its f alteration present one primary mode of evidence, their investigation provides a critical form of research, especially in association (and often in contest) with archival documentary sources and oral histories. This course will examine the theories and techniques used to investigate the morphological evolution of built works, sometimes known as “above ground archaeology”. Students will learn and apply methods relevant to the reading of architectural fabric. Methods of investigation will include absolute and relative dating techniques such as dendrochronology, finishes stratigraphy, mortar analysis, and various typological - seriation studies including framing, molding, fastener (nails and screws), and hardware analyses. Students are expected to use this knowledge in combination with the recording skills of HSPV 601 to record their assigned sites.

Building Pathology

HSPV 551-001, Henry

This course addresses the subject of deterioration of buildings, their materials, assemblies and systems, with the emphasis on the technical aspects of the mechanisms of deterioration and their enabling factors, material durability and longevity of assemblies. Details of construction and assemblies are analyzed relative to functional and performance characteristics. Lectures cover: concepts in durability; climate, psychrometric, soils & hydrologic conditions; physics of moisture in buildings; enclosure, wall and roof systems; structural systems; and building services systems with attention to performance, deterioration, and approaches to evaluation of remedial interventions. Prerequisite(s): HSPV 555 or one technical course in architecture.

Conservation Science

HSPV 555-001, Matero

This course provides an introduction to architectural conservation and the technical study of traditional building materials. Lectures and accompanying laboratory sessions introduce the nature and composition of these materials, their properties, and mechanisms of deterioration, and the general laboratory skills necessary for field and laboratory characterization. Knowledge of basic college level chemistry is required

Documentation, Research, Recording II

HSPV 601-001/101, Mason/Matero/Faculty

This course provides an introduction to the survey and recording of historic buildings and sites. Techniques of recording include traditional as well as digitally-based methods including field survey, measured drawings, photography and rectified photography. Emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate recording tools in the context of a thorough understanding of the historical significance, form and function of sites. Required for first-year MSHP students; others by permission.

Historic Site Management

HSPV 606-001, Faculty

The course focuses on management, planning, and decision making for all types of heritage sites from individual buildings to historic sites to whole landscapes. Course material will draw on model approaches to management, as well as a series of domestic and international case studies, with the goal of understanding the practicalities of site management. Particular topics to be examined in greater detail might include conservation policy, interpretation, tourism, or economic development strategies.

Architectures of Commerce: Buildings and Landscapes of American Retail from the Colonial Era to the Present

HSPV 620-401, Wunsch

Merchants and the “world of goods” have left an indelible mark on America’s neighborhoods, cities, and regions. We will examine the structures and spaces in which commercial activities occurred – an excursion running the gamut from counting houses to warehouses, from pushcarts to mini-malls. Studying these buildings as distinctive types, we will also analyze the roles they have played in the American cultural landscape. Doing so requires forays into urban, economic, and cultural history. Close reading and student-led discussion form the course’s backbone.

Urban Conservation Seminar: Heritage and Urbanism in China

HSPV 621-301, Mason

The course will compare and contrast the experiences of European cities, where urban conservation has developed over centuries, and Asian cities that have been experiencing explosive growth and are informed by quite different theories of urbanism and heritage. This seminar covers basic concepts, tools, history, theory and case studies in urban conservation-a specialist area of preservation bringing to bear aspects of urban history, planning, design, development, policy and governance. Greatest emphasis rests on the experience of contemporary Chinese cities. A series of lectures, intensive readings, case studies, small writing projects and guest presentations will build familiarity with the subject of the course. The second half of the semester will include intensive practical project on Shanghai and Beijing (involving travel to China over spring break).

Preservation Economics

HSPV 625-001, Rypkema

The primary objective is to prepare the student, as a practicing preservationist, to understand the language of the development community, to make the case through feasibility analysis why a preservation project should be undertaken, and to be able to quantify the need for public/non-profit intervention in the development process. A second objective is to acquaint the student with measurements of the economic impact of historic preservation and to critically evaluate "economic hardship" claims made to regulatory bodies by private owners.

Topics in Historic Preservation: Cities and Sound: The Spatial Politics of Sound in Modern Urban Life

HSPV 638-401/MUS 621, Ammon and Waltham-Smith

This seminar will examine the role of sound in shaping modern urban spaces and life. While music plays a large part in the sounds of the city, we will focus on soundscapes more broadly. From the late 19th century through the present, and in geographies spanning from Paris to Philadelphia, we will explore the making, meaning, and experience of sound for varied populations; the politics of sound as an instrument of power; and the policies of noise regulation. As an interdisciplinary seminar supported by the Mellon Humanities+Urbanism+Design Initiative, the course will bring together students and faculty from diverse fields to probe the subject of urban sound through the lenses of both theory and practice. We will read across a wide variety of disciplines, including urban and environmental history, sound studies, urban geography, the history of sensation, musicology, anthropology, and critical theory. We will engage with sound archives, installations, films, and photographs, and also have an opportunity to make field recordings of our own. The format of the final project is flexible and could include a research paper, theoretical essay, visualizations, GIS mapping, sonic compositions, short film, or other types of media.

Theories of Historic Preservation II

HSPV 661-301 (second half of semester), Mason

Theories of historic preservation serve as models for practice, integrating the humanistic, artistic, design, scientific and political understandings of the field. HSPV 661 builds on HSPV 660, which examines the historical evolution of historic preservation, reviews theoretical frameworks and issues, and explores current modes of practice. HSPV 661 engages advanced topics such as cultural landscape theory, economics of preservation, sustainability and environmental conservation, social justice, and urban design. In addition to readings and lectures, case studies from contemporary practice will be used to examine theories in practice. The principal assignment will be a term research paper. The instructor’s permission is required for any student not registered in the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation. (Note that the course is the second of two parts; the first half, on the basics of preservation theory, is taught in the fall semester while the second half takes place in the spring semester.)

Historic Preservation Law

HSPV 671-001, Michael

Introduction to the legal framework of urban planning and historic preservation, with special emphasis on key constitutional issues, zoning, historic districts, growth management, and state and local laws for conserving historic buildings.

Topical Studio/Seminar: Urban Regeneration in Quito

HSPV 703-301, Rojas

This 1-CU course-combining seminar and studio teaching methods-will focus on the opportunities and challenges posed by the sustainable conservation of urban heritage areas with a particular focus in the historic centers of Latin America. Adapting urban heritage sites and buildings for contemporary uses with proven demand is a strategy that is gaining acceptance around the world and is considered more capable of sustaining the conservation of urban heritage than traditional conservation methods based on the strict preservation of the physical characteristics and uses. However, the adaptive rehabilitation of historic neighborhoods and buildings poses significant conceptual and design challenges. Class sessions will explore the conceptual problems involved in the adaptive rehabilitation of heritage building and public spaces in historic centers including all historic periods: pre-Columbian, colonial, republican and those from the modern movement. The methodology includes the analysis and discussion of case studies of successful listing and adaptive rehabilitation efforts. The Studio exercise will focus on the practical challenges posed by this approach to heritage conservation in the historic center of Quito in Ecuador, the first urban heritage area included in UNESCO’s World Heritage List. The students will work in close cooperation with government officials in Ecuador in charge of managing the historic center.

Rural Studio/Seminar

HSPV 713-301, Watson

The preservation of rural places -- landscapes, villages and towns -- presents a widespread and urgent challenge. Economic restructuring, metropolitan development and other social forces continue to challenge the integrity and vitality of rural communities and landscapes across the U.S. This seminar/studio course explores means of activating rural places while retaining their character. Issues of abandonment and underutilization, industrial and agricultural restructuring, environmental conservation, and new economic opportunities will be explored. Tools from historic preservation, land conservation, economic development, community engagement and ecological design will be considered and applied. Research and focused readings will establish key issues, case studies, innovative ideas and institutions; students will create focused proposals for the conservation and redevelopment of a chosen study site in southeastern Pennsylvania.

Conservation Seminar: Materials B Finishes/Metals

HSPV 740-301, Myers/Meighan

Module 1: Finishes - Cassie Myers Pre-requisite: HSPV 555 Conservation Science and permission needed from department. Please email Amanda Bloomfield to request a permit. The course will address the technology, analysis, deterioration, and treatment of historic finishes. Students will gain an overview of the materials and technology of which architectural finishes have been most commonly made, the types and causes of deterioration and diagnostic approaches, and treatment. Two categories of treatment will be considered: the replication of paints based on sample analysis and in situ excavation; and the treatment of deteriorated or buried paint intended to be represented as part of the architecture or site. Guest lecturers will elaborate on finishes analysis. A case study site will provide the opportunity for developing skills. Module 2: Metals - Melissa Meighan In architectural context we think of metal as a modern material, however, metals associated with buildings have been found in the Middle East since the third millennium BC. Copper, iron and lead are in practical use in the Mediterranean world in the first millennium BCE, and during the first millennium CE, in India, China and Japan large iron and copper alloy monuments and buildings were constructed. It is the 18th century English development of iron frame architecture which eventually allows the development of the modern curtain wall. Metals in a wide range of forms, finishes and colors have been used for architecture, architectural embellishment, as well as lighting, clocks, fencing et cetera, and for monumental sculpture. The course will continue the introduction to the material science and characterization of these metals – copper, iron, aluminum, lead, zinc, tin, nickel, titanium. It will briefly survey traditional technologies used for extraction, processing, forming, joining and finishing with an overview of historical use. A review of basic metallurgy, the mechanisms of corrosion and other aspects of deterioration, will be followed by training in condition assessment, a survey of preventative strategies and the range of conservation treatment methods. The course will meet at Meyerson Hall and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and includes a tour of outdoor sites. There will be the opportunity for a hands on metal forging workshop.

Pit and Quarry: The Slate Industries of Lehigh Valley

HSPV 743-301, Matero

2013 marked the 50th anniversary of Kenneth Hudson’s groundbreaking book and manifesto on “industrial archaeology,” the “mongrel” field he first named as the bastard offspring of industry and archaeology. Today the remains of industry past dominate the global landscape. Urban and rural America are littered with the evidence of the last two centuries of the country’s former industrial prowess and many of these places, now abandoned, hold latent value for their transformation and reuse. Since Lawrence Halprin’s 1967 conversion of Ghirardelli Chocolate Company’s headquarters to public retail and Richard Haag’s 1971-1976 Gasland Park in Seattle, myriad other examples in the U.S. have since followed. Recent initiatives such as the Industrial Heritage Reuse Project by the Preservation League of New York State are specifically examining the reuse potential of several abandoned industrial buildings in Albany to provide model approaches in similar urban contexts elsewhere. But many other less adaptable sites such as brick yards, cement plants, and quarries of landscape scale, pose enormous difficulties for preservation and reuse. Extractive Industries Among the oldest of technologies, the extractive industries involve the removal and processing of raw materials from the earth and their global scale of operation transformed entire regions and markets. The Lehigh Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania gave rise to several world-class extractive industries, including cement production and slate quarrying, which would dominate the American and international scene in the first decade of the twentieth century. Slate World The Pennsylvania “Slate Belt,” an area of only 22 square miles, lies approximately 50 miles to the northwest of Philadelphia and just south of Blue (Kittanning) Mountain between the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers. The first quarries opened in the 1830s, but significant growth followed in the first decade of the twentieth century when Lehigh Valley accounted for approximately half the slate produced in the United States, eventually becoming the greatest slate producing region in the world. During World War I, many of the slate firms closed to release men for other essential war work, especially in the Bethlehem Steel plant nearby. Most of the quarries never reopened after the war as modern synthetic materials such as asphalt composites and plastics proved less expensive and easier to use, and required less skilled labor to fabricate and install. Today only a handful of the old slate quarries remain active. Big Bed Slate, still in operation, is one of the oldest and best preserved of the early operations with its iron crane hoists, steam and electric machinery and mill shops, and extensive series of former and active quarries. This company, still economically viable, and interested in spearheading the valley’s industrial history, offers a unique opportunity together with the Slate Belt Heritage Center in Bangor, PA to document that legacy through a creative mix of preservation and economic development. Cement Age Reinforced concrete would prove to be the modern material of the new century and in the United States, the creation of the first Portland cement plants in the Lehigh Valley in 1871 at Coplay, would give rise to an industry that would forever change the face of America and the world. An essential component of concrete, Portland cement is second only to water as the most consumed material on the planet. By 1901, the Atlas Portland Cement Co. in Northampton, PA was the largest cement company in the United States – more than twice the size and probably five to ten times the size of most firms in the industry. Cement consumption increased almost ten-fold from 1890 to 1913 and until 1907, more than half of the Portland cement produced in the United States came from the Lehigh Valley. Today the valley is still the country’s center of cement production but automation has rendered the old plants nearly vacant, their historic mills and kilns, though still impressive, largely abandoned. This advanced research studio builds on a current PennPraxis grant focused on the study of the cement and slate industries of Pennsylvania’s Lehigh Valley. It is funded by the J. M. Kaplan Fund and directed by Frank Matero, Professor of Architecture and Historic Preservation, and aims to bring a more critical approach to the identification, evaluation, and preservation of the most important and neglected of American industrial sites. Using information already collected, students will identify specific plants within the cement and slate belts and develop conservation programs for their preservation and interpretation. Focus will be on the industrial remains: buildings, structures, machinery, and features and involve their physical recording, condition survey, and analysis. Interested students should contact Frank Matero at fgmatero@design.upenn.edu

FALL 2015

Building Diagnostics and Monitoring

HSPV 516-001, Henry

Building diagnostics pertain to the determination of the nature of a building's condition or performance and the identification of the corresponding causative pathologies by a careful observation and investigation of its history, context and use, resulting in a formal opinion by the professional. Monitoring, a building diagnostic tool, is the consistent observation and recordation of a selected condition or attribute, by qualitative and/or quantitative measures over a period of time in order to generate useful information or data for analysis and presentation. Building diagnostics and monitoring allow the building professional to identify the causes and enabling factors of past or potential pathologies in a building and building systems, thus informing the development appropriate interventions or corrective measures. In the case of heritage buildings, the process informs the selection of interventions that satisfy the stewardship goals for the cultural resource.

American Architecture

HSPV 521-001, Holst

This course is a survey of architecture in the United States. The organization, while broadly chronological, emphasizes themes around which important scholarship has gathered. The central purpose is to acquaint you with major cultural, economic, technological, and environmental forces that have shaped buildings and settlements in North America for the last 400 years. To that end, we will study a mix of “high-style” and “vernacular” architectures while encouraging you to think critically about these categories. Throughout the semester, you will be asked to grapple with both the content of assigned readings (the subject) and the manner in which authors present their arguments (the method). Louis Sullivan, for instance, gives us the tall office building “artistically considered” while Carol Willis presents it as a financial and legal artifact. What do you make of the difference? Finally, you will learn how to describe buildings. While mastery of architectural vocabulary is a necessary part of that endeavor, it is only a starting point. Rich or “thick” description is more than accurate prose. It is integral to understanding the built environment – indeed, to seeing it at all.

American Building Technology

HSPV 540-001, Matero, 2nd half of the semester

Much architectural writing--from Vitruvius to Le Corbusier--has drawn analogous comparisons between buildings and the human body. Like the skeleton, skin, and internal metabolic systems of the human corpus, buildings are comprised of a structure, infrastructure, and outer surface which are all connected and through which liquids, gases and solids pass. Traditionally, form depended in large part on systems of construction and the selection and manipulation of individual materials. Understanding architecture’s materiality in terms of form and fabric, structure and skin, and mechanical systems is essential in understanding not only what a building is, but how it evolves over time. American Building Technology will be divided into two discreet six week modules conceived in succession and taught during the second half of the first semester and first half of the second semester respectively. Module 1: Building Anatomy will examine traditional construction methods through a typological analysis of construction systems. Module 2: Building Archaeology will address the morphological evolution of a structure and its physical setting, sometimes known as “above ground archaeology.” Since the physical fabric and its evidences of cultural alteration present one primary mode of inquiry, archaeological theory and method provide an excellent means to recover, read, and interpret material evidence, especially in association with documentary and archival sources. The course is intended to introduce students in Historic Preservation to the physical realities of built form and its analysis through careful observation and description.

Preservation through Public Policy

HSPV 572-001, Hollenberg

An exploration of the intersection between historic preservation, design, and public policy. That exploration is based on the recognition that a network of law and policy at the federal, state and local level has profound impact on the ability to manage cultural resources, and that the pieces of that network, while interconnecting, are not necessarily mutually supportive. The fundamental assumption of the course is that the preservation professional must understand the capabilities and deficiencies of this network in order to be effective. The course will look at a range of relevant and exemplary laws and policies existing at all levels of government, examining them through case studies and field exercises.

Documentation, Research, Recording 1

HSPV 600-001, Ammon

The goal of this class is to help students develop their understanding and utilization of materials that contextualize the history of buildings and sites. In order to gain first-hand exposure to the actual materials of building histories, we will visit a half-dozen key archival repositories. Students will work directly with historical evidence—both textual and graphic—and exercise their facility through projects. We will explore various forms of documentation, discussing each in terms of its nature, the motives for its creation, and some ways it might find effective use. Philadelphia is more our laboratory than a primary focus in terms of content, as the city is rich in institutions that hold over three centuries of such materials; students will find here both an exposure to primary documents of most of the types they might find elsewhere, as well as a sense of the culture of such institutions and of the kinds of research strategies that can be most effective.

Digital Media for Historic Preservation

HSPV 624-001/101, Hinchman

A required praxis course designed to introduce students to the techniques and application of digital media for visual and textual communication. Techniques will be discussed for preservation use including survey, documentation, relational databases, and digital imaging and modeling.

Contemporary Design in Historic Settings

HSPV 640-301, Hawkes

Thoughtful contemporary design can add value and meaning to historic settings of any scale. Rigorous dialogue with history and context enriches contemporary design. This seminar immerses students in the rewarding yet challenging realm of design with landmarks and existing structures. It will encourage participants to create their own models for design and preservation planning through discussion of source materials that illustrate the political, cultural and aesthetic environments that have shaped regulation and design with heritage throughout the past century. Sketch problems set in Philadelphia and analysis of case studies from around the world will enable students to critique and communicate a range of responses to landmarks and historic contexts, and to explore the roles of significance, physical and intangible conditions in shaping appropriate responses. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor.

Advanced Conservation Science

HSPV 656-001/101, Vatankhah

Prerequisite(s): HSPV 555, Conservation Science or Permission of the Instructor. A methodological approach to the examination and analysis of historic building materials. Experimental design for conducting conservation research and statistical calculations and modeling of analytical data. Practical analytical techniques appropriate for conservation practice including: classical and instrumental analytical techniques for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic materials. Theoretical and practical applications of advanced surface analyses for both elemental and molecular/composition characterizations as well as application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in conservation will be discussed. Students will also learn about deterioration processes and long term effects of conservation treatments through accelerated aging techniques. Course material will be taught through lectures, laboratory sessions, and practicing techniques on thesis samples, along with provided readings.

Theories of Historic Preservation

HSPV 660-301, Mason, 1st half of the semester

Theories of historic preservation serve as models for practice, integrating the humanistic, artistic, design, scientific and political understandings of the field. This course examines the historical evolution of historic preservation, reviews theoretical frameworks and issues, and explores current modes of practice. Emphasis is placed on literacy in the standard preservation works and critical assessment of common preservation concepts. In addition to readings and lectures, case studies from contemporary practice will form the basis for short assignments. Professional ethics are reviewed and debated. The instructor’s permission is required for any student not registered in the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation. Note that the course is organized in two parts; the first half, on the basics of preservation theory, is taught in the fall semester while the second half takes place in the spring semester and engages advanced topics.

Historic Preservation Studio

HSPV 701-201, Mason / Wang / Hawkes

The studio is a practical course in planning architectural, urban and regional conservation interventions, bringing to bear the wide range of skills and ideas at play in the field of historic preservation. Recognizing that historical areas are complex entities where cultural and socio-economic realities, land use, building types, and the legal and institutional setting are all closely interrelated, the main focus of the studio is understanding the cultural significance of the built environment, and the relation of this significance to other economic, social, political and aesthetic values. Through the documentation and analysis of a selected study area, studio teams undertake planning exercises for an historical area, consult with communities and other stakeholders, carry out documentation and historical research, and create policies and projects. The studio seeks to demonstrate how, through careful evaluation of problems and potentials, preservation planning can respond to common conflicts between the conservation of cultural and architectural values and the pressure of social forces, economic interest, and politics. The studio focuses on a specific site in need of comprehensive preservation effort, most often in Philadelphia proper. Students work in teams as well as on individual projects. Consultation with local preservation and planning groups, community representatives, and faculty advisors informs research and analyze the study area, helping to define major preservation planning problems and opportunities, formulate policies, and propose preservation plans and actions.

Conservation Seminar: Wood/Masonry

HSPV 740-301, Ingraffia / Fearon

Module 1: Masonry – Roy Ingraffia This seminar will offer an in-depth study of the conservation of masonry buildings and monuments with a particular focus on American building stone. Technical and aesthetic issues will be discussed as they pertain to the understanding required for conservation practice. Part 1 will address a broad range of building stone, masonry construction technologies, and deterioration phenomenon; Part 2 will concentrate on conservation methodology as well as past and current approaches for the treatment of stone masonry structures. The subject will be examined through published literature and case studies. Students will gain practical experience through lab and field exercises and demonstrations. The subject matter is relevant to interested students of conservation and preservation, architecture, landscape architecture, architectural history, and archaeology. Module 2: Wood – Andrew Fearon Prior to the twentieth century, most structures found in the built environment relied upon wood as a primary material for both structural members and decorative features. An understanding of the physical properties as well as the historic application of this organic material provides the basis for formulating solutions for a wide spectrum of conservation issues. As the scope of preserving wooden structures and wooden architectural elements is continually broadened, new methods and technology available to the conservator together allow for an evolving program – one that is dependent upon both consistent review of treatments and more in depth study of craft traditions. This course seeks to illustrate and address material problems typically encountered by stewards of wooden cultural heritage – among them structural assessment, bio-deterioration, stabilization and replication techniques. Through a series of lectures and hands-on workshops given by representative professionals from the fields of wood science, conservation, entomology, engineering, and archaeology, theoretical and practical approaches to retaining wooden materials will be examined with the goal to inform the decision making process of future practicing professionals.

Conservation of Archaeological Sites

HSPV 747-401, Matero

This seminar will address the history, theories, and practice of the preservation and display of archaeological sites and landscapes. The course will draw from a wide range of published material and experiences representing both national and international contexts. Topics will include site and landscape documentation and recording; site formation and degradation; intervention strategies including interpretation, display, and exhibits; tourism and development, and legislation, policy, and contemporary issues of descendent community ownership. The course is organized as a seminar incorporating readings, lectures, and discussions focused on major themes. Readings have been selected to provide exposure to seminal works in the development of theory and method as well as current expressions of contemporary practice. Readings and discussions will be complemented by a field project: Fort Union National Historical Site in eastern New Mexico, the largest earthen ruin in North America. Participants will have the opportunity to review the history of the site and its preservation and display, evaluate current conditions, and make recommendations for intervention and interpretation. A funded site visit is planned during studio travel week, Oct 3-10. The course is open to all first and second year preservation students and all others interested in the conservation and management of archaeological sites.

SUMMER 2015

Architectural Conservation Praxis: Traditional Buildings / Traditional Practice

HSPV 750-901, Matero, July 20, 2015August 7, 2015

1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV-540 or HSPV-555. Heritage Conservation Praxis is an intensive 3 week summer course designed for students pursuing studies in architectural conservation and site management and builds on the core curriculum and first-year courses. The syllabus is organized around project fieldwork supplemented by lectures, demonstrations, exercises, and site visits that will allow students to experience firsthand the design and construction of vernacular buildings and the application of traditional craft to preserve them. Through a partnership with Grand Teton National Park, students will engage in the recording, survey, and craft-related treatment of selected log and masonry structures under the supervision of Penn, NPS, and guest faculty. For Summer 2015, the course will be based in the intermountain West at Grand Teton National Park, WY. Bar BC Dude Ranch (1912), the oldest extant dude ranch in America, will be the site of the field work for the course. Bar BC Ranch displays a broad range of technical and interpretive problems related to the ranch’s original design, construction and use. Plans are currently underway to stabilize, interpret, and reuse these structures by the NPS. The course will also examine preservation issues related to the region's rich vernacular landscape and National Park heritage with visits to other sites in Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks and Jackson Hole. One month shared accommodation in cabins will be provided. Meals will be a communal event and prepared by a cook. Weekends (Saturday and Sunday) are free and on your own. Cost for meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) will be approximately $400 (for 3 weeks) and travel to Jackson Hole, WY is each student’s responsibility. Students are requested to bring laptops, cameras, sleeping bags and all personal items. An additional week may be available for those interested. Course enrollment is by permit only.

Preservation Planning Praxis

HSPV 760-901, Rypkema/Mason , May 26, 2015June 12, 2015

1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV 572 or 625 or other planning-centered coursework. This course is designed to meet two broad learning outcomes: first, solidify student's knowledge of basic city and regional planning concepts, systems and methods; second, and more extensively, apply this knowledge in a practical situation relevant to contemporary preservation planning practice. The course will be conducted over three weeks in the early summer and will have two distinct components: The first part of the course will be held in Philadelphia over three days in late May. It will focus on readings, lectures, and discussions about planning in general, applied to the U.S. Randy Mason will lead this part of the course. The second part of the course will take place in Belgrade, Serbia and will be led by Donovan Rypkema. Lasting approximately two weeks, the course's Serbian component will center on the application of preservation-led development strategies combined with creative-economy policies. Our partner in this project is the University of Belgrade, and municipal authorities in Belgrade and nearby towns. Course enrollment is by permit only.

Interpretation, Public History and Site Management Praxis

HSPV 770-901 , Wunsch/Young/Mason, May 26, 2015June 12, 2015

1 course unit. Studio. Pre-requisite: HSPV 600 and 601; 606 preferred. This course is designed to meet two broad learning outcomes: first, solidify graduate students' basic knowledge of public history issues and process; second, apply research and communication skills to the interpretation of specific heritage sites in the context of professional site management. The course will be conducted over three weeks in the early summer and will have two distinct components. The first part of the course will be held on campus over the first week of the three-week course. It will focus on three overall subjects: close reading and debate of the literature on public history, review of case studies, and guest lectures; lectures on interpretation best-practices and philosophies; workshops on integrating design and interpretive tools. The second part of the course will take place in Chicago, related to attending the Vernacular Architecture Forum conference. A third component will take place at a heritage site or sites in or around Philadelphia, and focus on fieldwork and evaluation of sites’ management and interpretive experiences. Working with partners at the site, and in archives, students will research, design and implement an interpretation project. Partners, specific schedule of topics, reading list, and assignments to be determined. Course enrollment is by permit only.

SPRING 2015

American Vernacular Architecture

HSPV 528-401, St. George, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

This course explores the form and development of America’s built landscape – its houses, farm buildings, churches, factories, and fields – as a source of information on folk history, vernacular culture, and architectural practice.

American Domestic Interiors

HSPV 531-001, Keim, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

This course will examine the American domestic interior from the seventeenth century through the twentieth century with emphasis on the cultural, economic, and technological forces that determined the decoration and furnishing of the American home. Topics to be covered include the decorative arts; floor, wall and window treatments; and developments in lighting, heating, plumbing, food preparation and service, and communication technologies. In addition to the identification of period forms and materials, the course will give special emphasis to historical finishes. The final project will involve re-creation of an historic interior based on in-depth household inventory analysis and study. Several class periods will be devoted to off-site field trips.

Cultural Landscapes & Landscape Preservation

HSPV 538-001, Mason, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

The course introduces the history and understanding of common American landscapes and surveys the field of cultural landscape studies. The cultural-landscape perspective is a unique lens for understanding the evolution of the built environment, the experience of landscapes, and the abstract economic, political and social processes that shape the places where most Americans spend most of their time. The course will focus on the forces and patterns (natural and cultural) behind the shaping of recognizably "American" landscapes, whether urban, suburban, or rural. Methods for documenting and preserving landscape will be surveyed. Class discussions, readings, and projects will draw on several disciplines--cultural geography, vernacular architecture, environmental history, historic preservation, ecology, art, and more.

Building Pathology

HSPV 551-001, Henry, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

This course addresses the subject of deterioration of buildings, their materials, assemblies and systems, with the emphasis on the technical aspects of the mechanisms of deterioration and their enabling factors, material durability and longevity of assemblies. Details of construction and assemblies are analyzed relative to functional and performance characteristics. Lectures cover: concepts in durability; climate, psychrometric, soils & hydrologic conditions; physics of moisture in buildings; enclosure, wall and roof systems; structural systems; and building services systems with attention to performance, deterioration, and approaches to evaluation of remedial interventions. Prerequisite(s): HSPV 555 or one technical course in architecture.

Conservation Science

HSPV 555-001/101, Matero, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

This course provides an introduction to architectural conservation and the technical study of traditional building materials. Lectures and accompanying laboratory sessions introduce the nature and composition of these materials, their properties, and mechanisms of deterioration, and the general laboratory skills necessary for field and laboratory characterization. Knowledge of basic college level chemistry is required.

Research, Recording, Interpretation II

HSPV 601-001/101, Wunsch / Hinchman / Elliott, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

This course provides an introduction to the survey and recording of historic buildings and their sites. Techniques of recording include photography and traditional as well as digitally-based quantitative methods including measured drawings and rectified photography. Emphasis is on the use of appropriate recording tools in the context of a thorough understanding of the historical significance and function of the site.

Historic Site Management

HSPV 606-001, Young, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

The course focuses on management, planning, and decision making for all types of heritage sites from individual buildings to historic sites to whole landscapes. Course material will draw on model approaches to management, as well as a series of domestic and international case studies, with the goal of understanding the practicalities of site management. Particular topics to be examined in greater detail might include conservation policy, interpretation, tourism, or economic development strategies.

Preservation Economics

HSPV 625-001, Rypkema, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

The primary objective is to prepare the student, as a practicing preservationist, to understand the language of the development community, to make the case through feasibility analysis why a preservation project should be undertaken, and to be able to quantify the need for public/non-profit intervention in the development process. A second objective is to acquaint the student with measurements of the economic impact of historic preservation and to critically evaluate "economic hardship" claims made to regulatory bodies by private owners.

Topics in Historic Preservation: Photography and the City

HSPV 638-301, Ammon, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

This seminar explores the intersecting social and cultural histories of photography and the urban and suburban built environment. No prior background in photography is necessary. Since its inception in 1839, photography has provided a critical means for documenting change in American cities and suburbs. We might characterize the medium's evolution as moving through four major phases: 1) celebration of the great structures of the industrial city; 2) documentation and attempted reform of the social life of Progressive and New Deal era cities; 3) critique of expanding postwar suburbs and sprawl; and 4) reflection on change in the post-industrial city. Each week, we will compare two image collections as the basis for our discussion. While authorship by individual photographers provides the entry point to many of these conversations, our primary focus will be the images' portrayal of urban and suburban people, structures, and space. Through our investigations, we will explore how photography's dual documentary and aesthetic properties have helped to reflect and transform the city, both physically and culturally.

Memorials & Memorialization

HSPV 703-302, Mason / Lum, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

The functions, meanings, images, designs and politics of memorials are an urgent issue in contemporary society. Memorials and memorialization processes occupy a central place in culture and public space, and concentrate some of the most interesting and fraught design, artistic and interpretive questions facing designers, artists and scholars today. This seminar, limited to 12 students from a variety of departments, will explore discourse and practices of memorialization. The focus of our critical inquiry will be the powerful connections between art, design, memory and culture as embodied and represented in memorials and memorialization processes. Particular topics will include controversies regarding tragedy memorials, changing discourses around public art, and the status of ephemeral/popular memorials. The course will be led by Randy Mason in collaboration with Ken Lum, Professor of Fine Arts. Together, they and the class will explore the literature from both heritage/social-science/history perspectives and art/design perspectives. Class sessions may include field trips, exercises, projects and guest lectures.

Germantown Futures

HSPV 703-301, Wunsch / Keim, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

This seminar/studio hybrid explores urgent preservation and planning issues facing Philadelphia's Germantown neighborhood. Germantown has the largest concentration of historic buildings and landscapes outside of the city's core. But the word "concentration" is itself misleading: beyond the densely built-up spine of Germantown Avenue, the area is defined by large lots and old trees -- the very qualities that lured villa-builders there 200 years ago and suburban developers ever since. Contemporary development pressures are increasing dramatically; dealing with them robustly will require clear analyses of historic-resource patterns, zoning and planning structures, and community capacities. This course lays the groundwork for that effort, merging advocacy with analysis, resulting in recommendations for planning and preservation measures to improve the quality of life in Germantown without sacrificing its historic values and character. Students from varied PennDesign departments are welcome. Faculty for this course will include Aaron Wunsch, Laura Keim, and several preservation and planning professionals with significant experience in Germantown.

Conservation Seminar: Materials B Metals/Finishes

HSPV 740-301, Meighan / Myers , January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

Module 1: Metals - Melissa Meighan In architectural context we think of metal as a modern material, however, copper alloys appear in the Middle East in connection with buildings in the third millennium BC, and by the first millennium BC, both iron and copper alloys are used in the Middle East and the Mediterranean for structural joining, as sheathing, as materials handling tools, and as monumental sculpture. In ancient Rome wrought iron beams were used and lead was the material of urban water piping and roofing. Prior to the Western Renaissance, wrought iron was also used in India; the Chinese cast massive iron sculpture and constructed a full scale cast iron pagoda; and the Japanese cast a bronze Buddha over 50' high. It is in 18th century England that metal, cast iron, came to be used as the fundamental structure of buildings and bridges, leading to 19th century engineering masterpieces. The metal bones and skin structural approach to building construction allowed for the development of the curtain wall, a common modern day phenomenon. Various metals in a wide range of forms, finishes and colors have been used extensively for architectural decorative embellishment, as well as lighting, clocks, fencing et cetera, both interior and exterior, and for monumental sculpture. The course will continue the introduction to the material science and characterization of the metals commonly used in buildings and monuments - copper, iron, aluminum, lead, zinc, tin, nickel, titanium. It will briefly survey traditional technologies used for extraction, processing, forming, joining and finishing with an overview of historical use. A review of basic metallurgy, the mechanisms of corrosion and other aspects of deterioration, will be followed by training in condition assessment, a survey of preventative strategies and the range of conservation treatment methods. The course will meet at the University of Pennsylvania and at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and includes a tour of outdoor sites. There will be the opportunity for a hands on metal forging workshop or a visit to a metal casting foundry. Module 2: Finishes - Cassie Myers Architectural surface finishes are among the most transformative and ephemeral of all materials in the built environment. Enduring harsh conditions and subject to frequent change, they are intrinsically vulnerable and as a result, are often replaced or disappear entirely. They offer insight into architectural alterations and conditions, imbue buildings with meaning, influence the perception and expression of design, and the effect of color and light. They ornament, imitate and fool the eye, and function as disinfectants, insecticides and waterproofing. Because architectural surface finishes encompass a wide range of material types and possibilities for conservation intervention, approaches to their treatment vary widely, from protecting and presenting original material to replicating them with new paint. The course will address the technology, analysis, deterioration, and treatment of historic finishes. Students will gain an overview of the materials and technology of which architectural finishes have been most commonly made, the types and causes of deterioration and diagnostic approaches, and treatment. Two categories of treatment will be considered, the replication of paints based on sample analysis and in situ excavation, and second the treatment of deteriorated or buried paint intended to be represented as part of the architecture or site. Guest lecturers will elaborate on finishes analysis. Analysis of historic finishes at the Ebenezer Maxwell Mansion in Germantown will provide a case study for developing skills.

Special Topics in Historic Preservation: Feats of Clay - Brick & Terra Cotta

HSPV 741-301, Matero, January 14, 2015May 12, 2015

Of the major construction materials and systems employed since the earliest architectural building, few display the geographical and temporal spread or extreme material transformation as architectural ceramics. Born of clay, water, and fire, brick and its kin—terra cotta and structural, roof, and ornamental tile—have been employed to construct, protect, and ornament buildings in an unbroken tradition stretching from the towers of the Old Testament to the contemporary rain screens of today’s high-rise buildings. Dating to the mid-15th century, the word can be traced to the Old French brique, meaning “a form of loaf” or “broken piece, fragment or bit,” as in to break bread, thus reminding us of the ancient relationship between building in brick and the civilizing hallmarks of agriculture and urbanization. Archaeological excavation reveals an ancient and continuous global narrative of invention and re-invention. In each case, the remarkable adaptability of this modest material, hand-shaped, molded, pressed, poured, or extruded in a myriad of sizes, shapes, colors, and textures has produced structural designs of complex form and pattern, as well as incredible durability. Despite its repetitive production, brick can be deceptively variable, allowing functional and aesthetic vitality even in its most common usage. Regular by definition, brick finds its voice in legion, the result being a wall, arch or vault of any dimension or shape. Its close relative, terra cotta, possesses all the benefits of durability and reproducibility as brick but with the enviable advantages of the artist’s hand and even greater versatility in color and shape. Despite modernism’s embrace of brick’s no-nonsense functionality and its long history as a fireproof material, brick has long been viewed as a second class material reserved for utilitarian structures or concealed with more luxurious stone or stucco veneers or even paint. From its earliest origins, Philadelphia has been a city of brick. Swedish, then English masonry traditions shaped the young metropolis. Philadelphia’s brick masons passed some of the first brick laws in the colonies and were among the first to organize as a trade union. By 1880 brick was the dominant building material in urban America and compared to Boston and New York, Philadelphia possessed the highest concentration of brick buildings in the country. The region boasted in possessing the best clay deposits in the United States and its brick and terra cotta manufactories were world famous in their technological advances and quality of product, supplying architects and builders with a large variety of stock and custom designs. Given this unique context, our focus will be a cross-disciplinary study of structural clay products - namely brick and terra cotta. We will consider these materials in terms of material process, product, and structural assemblage and these considerations will allow an exploration of (1)historical and traditional technology and design, (2)material characterization and analysis, (3)performance and (4)conservation. These areas of consideration will set the structure of the course which will be conducted as a seminar where students will have the opportunity to conduct original research and to contribute to the Exhibit: Feats of Clay to open in the Kroiz Gallery/Architectural Archives in May 2015. Guest lectures and visits to sites in New York City and Boston Valley Terra Cotta Co. in Buffalo are planned. Open to all students in historic preservation, architecture, fine arts, archaeology and art history.

Fall 2017