Graduate Architecture

Contents

2018 SUMMER PREPARATORY PROGRAM

Digi-Blast, Summer Preparatory Studio, Physics for Architects, History of Architecture Please see link to blog post for schedule and information.

SUMMER STUDY ABROAD

In the summer abroad programs, students study and travel for approximately 4 weeks at the beginning of the summer (mid-May through mid-June) and receive 1 elective course unit of credit. These programs are open to both graduate and undergraduate students.

Design Studio I

501-201, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Andrew Saunders - Coordinator

An introductory architectural design studio through which students develop critical, analytical and speculative design abilities in architecture. Students develop representational techniques for the analysis of social and cultural constructs, and formulate propositions for situating built form in the arena of the urban and suburban environment. The studio initiates innovation through a sequence of projects, spatial models and rule sets that introduce each student to rule-based design processes-- in which a reversal of expectations leads to the creation of novel spaces and structures. It introduces computation, geometric techniques, and digital fabrication. Projects explore the formation of space in relation to the body, and the developments of small scale public programs.

History and Theory I

511-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Joan Ockman

The first of three required courses in the history and theory of architecture, this is a lecture course with discussion groups that meet weekly with teaching assistants. The course explores fundamental ideas and models of architecture that have emerged over the past three hundred years.

Visual Studies I

521-101, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Nate Hume

The study of analysis and projection through drawing and computer visualization.

Construction I

531-401, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Philip Ryan

This lecture course explores the basic principles of architectural technology and building construction. Focus is placed on building material, methods of on-site and off-site preparation, material assemblies, and the material performance. Topics discussed include load bearing masonry structures of small to medium size (typical row house construction), heavy and light wood frame construction, sustainable construction practices, emerging + engineered materials, and integrated building practices. The course also introduces students to Building Information Modeling (BIM) via the production of construction documents.

Structures I

535-401, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Richard Farley

Theory applied toward structural form. A review of one-dimensional structural elements; a study of arches, slabs and plates, curved surface structures, lateral and dynamic loads; survey of current and future structural technology. The course comprises both lectures and a weekly laboratory in which various structural elements, systems, materials and technical principles are explored.

Design Studio III

601-201, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Hina Jamelle - Coordinator

In this studio series students examine architecture as a cultural agent and examine the way buildings establish and organize dynamic relationships between site, program and material. The design of a complex building of approximately 50,000 SF provides the pedagogical focus for this research. Students expand their skills through geometrical organization, site analysis and building massing/orientation to related to program organization, circulation and egress, building systems and materials. The conceptual focus of the course is centered on the program of dwelling and how this program can be employed to develop and promote dynamic relationships and conditions through time, both within the building and between the building, and the context. Through research and experimentation students integrate ecological processes into their design methodology to support design innovations in the building's structure, its construction assemblies, environmental systems, and materials. Students work towards a high level of design resolution and visual representation, including the articulation of the building structure and its material assembly/enclosure.

History and Theory III

611-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Faculty

This is the third and final required course history and theory of architecture. It is a lecture course that examines selected topics, figures, projects, and theories from the history of architecture and related design fields during the 20th century. The course also draws on related and parallel historical material from other disciplines and arts, placing architecture into a broader socio-cultural-political-technological context. Seminars with teaching assistants complement the lectures.

Visual Studies III

621-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Nate Hume

The final of the Visual Studies half-credit courses. Drawings are explored as visual repositories of data from which information can be gleaned, geometries tested and designs refined and transmitted. Salient strengths of various digital media programs are identified and developed through assignments that address the specific intentions and challenges of the design studio project.

Tech Case Studies I

631-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Lindsay Falck

A study of the active integration of various building systems in exemplary architectural projects. To deepen students' understanding of the process of building, the course compares the process of design and construction in similar types of buildings. The course brings forward the nature of the relationship between architectural design and engineering systems, and highlights the crucial communication skills required by both the architect and the engineer.

Environmental Systems I

633-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Faculty

An introduction to the influence of thermal and luminous phenomenon in the history and practice of architecture. Issues of climate, health and environmental sustainability are explored as they relate to architecture in its natural context. The classes include lectures, site visits and field exploration.

Architectural Association (AA), London

698-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Homa Farjadi

An advanced Architectural Design Studio taught by Homa Farjadi in London at the Architectural Association's School of Architecture. Topics engage aspects of urban life and urban form in London, and vary from year to year. During the fifth term of the Master of Architecture program, up to fifteen students a year may enroll for the semester abroad program in London, England. This is coordinated by Prof. Homa Farjadi and is housed at the Architectural Association (AA), located on Bedford Square in the heart of Bloomsbury. Students enroll in a special design studio, ARCH 702, taught by Prof. Farjadi, and in two elective courses offered by the faculty at the AA.

Design Studio V

701-201, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Ferda Kolatan - Coordinator

A set of Advanced Architectural Design studios are offered from which students select through a lottery. Topics and sites vary by instructor.

Advanced Architectural Design Studio

703-201, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Ali Rahim

An Advanced Architectural Design Studio which is specifically tailored to post-professional students. Through this studio, students engage in the challenges and opportunities presented by changes in society, technology, and urban experience. Through design projects, students explore alternative modes and markets for practice, along with new directions and new tools for design.

Independent Thesis

706-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Annette Fierro

In the final semester of the program, students select from three options; 1) An elective design studio; selected from among the advanced architectural design studios offered by the Department of Architecture; 2) a research studio, the exploration of a topic or theme established by an individual faculty member or group of faculty members; or 3) an independent thesis, the exploration of a topic or theme under the supervision of a thesis advisor.

Contemporary Theory 1989-Present

710-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Faculty

A chronological overview of the approaches and attitudes adopted by architects, theorists and inter-disciplinary writers from 1993- today that have helped shape the current discourse of architecture. This course will introduce and contextualize key projects, and polemics over the last 25 years. Central themes in this course include the impact of digital technologies and methods of design, production and materiality. These are explored through texts, movements, projects and buildings that help form an overview that has shaped the contemporary condition that we live in. There have been a myriad of different approaches and through a select set of readings and lectures students will be exposed to crucial texts, projects and buildings making students versatile and knowledgeable in the important concepts that shape our current discourse. A focus will be the organization, configuration and articulation of buildings and the conceptual and cultural arguments they are associated. Formal, organizational and material characteristics of this period will be explored. This class will develop students' knowledge and provide a platform from which they can continue the discussions surrounding architectural thought and practice. The students will learn to communicate their ideas verbally and in writing. Contemporary topics in architecture theory and projects are introduced in a weekly lecture format critical to the shaping of our discipline today. A weekly recitation session allows students to engage with the readings critically in the subject matter. A mid-term and final paper are required to pass this class. (Topics to be covered: Seminal projects and buildings in the last 25 years, situating the architects work within a culture of debate and discourse identifying the important readings surrounding each building/project.)

Building Theories

711-002, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Franca Trubiano

Recent architectural projects have showcased unprecedented building technologies and inventions. The introduction of new materials, alternative energy sources, big data and the reorganization of global labor practices, have redefined the art of building. However, faced with these vast transformations in how we design and practice, architectural theory has been less than equipped to discuss, evaluate, and debate their impact. Required is the ability to analyze, rationalize, and theorize their consequences; required is a theory of BUILDING. For decades, architectural theory has been remiss to recognize the contribution which building practices have made to how we ‘think’ about architecture. Redressing this condition is the goal of this seminar; dedicated to the critical examination of ideas fundamental to the art of building. In a text-based review of both significant contemporary projects and seminal architectural writings, this seminar outlines the first ideas of the nascent field that is Building Theories. Designs require their construction, and construction requires rationalization; and it is in this reciprocity that students are invited to elaborate a new theoretical field.

Strange Symmetries: Towards a Symmetrical Architecture

711-003, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

David Salomon

Allegedly exorcised in the 20th century for its indifference to use, context and climate, it never really disappeared. Today, it is back with a vengeance. The diverse, if not divergent practices that use symmetry include: Reiser + Umemoto, MAD, Zaha Hadid, MOS, OMA, OFFICE, Foster, Pezo von Ellrichshausen, Dogma, David Ruy, Mark Foster Gage and Young + Ayata. Why symmetry, why now? The seminar will look at the history of symmetry as an idea, its use in architecture, and its subsequent expansion into other intellectual arenas. It will then turn its attention to current debates within architectural discourse – namely, those around flat-ontology, Object Oriented Ontology, and global architectural history - and the sublimated presence of symmetry within them. Next, we will look at and compare historical and contemporary architectural projects with one another, using the presence of symmetry in them to help identify/establish cross-cultural and cross-temporal affinities and disjunctions between them. Finally, the ideas of Latour, DeLanda, Harman and others will be deployed to theorize the return of symmetry. In short, through the close examination of symmetrical architecture and ideas about symmetry we will ask if symmetry – with its exhibited capacity to cross borders without losing its identity – help architecture avoid having to make the false choice between autonomy and engagement?

Modern Architecture in Japan – Culture, Climate, Tectonics

711-004, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Ariel Genadt

This seminar explores the diversity of forms and meanings that modern architecture took on in Japan since its industrialization in the 19th century. With this focus, it opens up wider questions on the capacity of construction, materials and their assembly to express and represent cultural, aesthetic, climatic and social concerns. Rather than an exhaustive chronological survey, the course demonstrates salient topics and milestones in the country’s recent architectural history, and places them in contexts of parallel practices in the world. It examines drawings, images, texts and films on architects whose work and words were emblematic of each topic.

The Agency of Autonomy, Tools For An Architecture of Translation

711-005, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Eduardo Rega Calvo

Architecture cannot be reduced to an introverted disciplinary discourse, nor can it be understood solely through its actions and relations with other entities outside of itself. The debate developed in the last 40 years between architecture's project for autonomy vs architecture as an instrument for social and political change, serves as a premise for this seminar, which analyzes and seeks to instrumentalize both theoretical positions. Adopting Graham Harman's terms, the seminar positions itself in a theoretical territory that neither undermines architecture through an essentialist discourse (Autonomy) nor overmines it through a purely relational one (Agency), but rather does both at once. The readings, presentations, debates and projects will capitalize on the differences and transferences in order to develop research and design tools that enable the translation between architecture as an autonomous discipline and its potential to provoke change in the social and political milieus of which it is a part.

Architecture’s Cultural Performance: The Façade

711-401, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

David Leatherbarrow

This course will reconsider these alternatives and ask again about the interrelationships between topics of design that seem to be categorically distinct: the project’s functionality and its style, its provision of settings that allow the enactment of practical purposes and its contribution to the image and appearance of our landscapes and cities. Our concentration will be at once historical and thematic. We will study and reconsider buildings from the twentieth century and we will ask questions that resonate through the past several decades into the present, questions about the building (its materials, construction, and figuration) as well as the process of design (description, projection, and discovery). Throughout the course we will return to the building’s most visible and articulate surface: the façade.

Archigram and Its Legacy: London, A Techtopia

719-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Annette Fierro

Acknowledging the ubiquitous proliferation of "Hi-Tech" architecture in contemporary London, this research seminar examines the scope of technology as it emerges and re-emerges in the work of various architects currently dominating the city. This scope includes the last strains of post-war urbanism which spawned a legacy of radical architecture directly contributing to the Hi-Tech; a particular focus of the course will be the contributing and contrasting influence provided by the counter-cultural groups of the '60s- Archigram, Superstudio, the Metabolists and others. Using the premise of Archigram's idea of infrastructure, both literal and of event, the course will attempt to discover relational networks between works of the present day (Rogers, Foster, Grimshaw, etc.). As this work practices upon and within public space, an understanding of the contribution of technology to urban theatricality will evolve which is relevant to contemporary spheres of technological design practices. Students will be required to produce and present a term research paper.

Designing Smart Objects for Play and Learning

721-401, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Assaf Eshet

Today's children enjoy a wide array of play experiences, with stories, learning, characters and games that exist as physical stand-alone objects or toys enhanced with electronics or software. In this course, students will explore the domain of play and learning in order to develop original proposals for new product experiences that are at once tangible, immersive and dynamic. They will conduct research into education and psychology while also gaining hands-on exposure to new product manifestations in a variety of forms, both physical and digital. Students will be challenged to work in teams to explore concepts, share research and build prototypes of their experiences in the form of static objects that may have accompanying electronic devices or software. Final design proposals will consider future distribution models for product experiences such as 3D printing, virtual reality and software- hardware integration. Instruction will be part seminar and part workshop, providing research guidance and encouraging connections will subject matter experts throughout the Penn campus.

Technology in Design: Immersive Kinematics/Physical Computing: Body of Site

724-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Simon Kim & Mark Yim

The aim of this course is to understand the new medium of architecture within the format of a research seminar. The subject matter of new media is to be examined and placed in a disciplinary trajectory of building designed and construction technology that adapts to material and digital discoveries. We will also build prototype with the new media, and establish a disciplinary knowledge for ourselves. The seminar is interested in testing the architecture-machine relationship, moving away from architecture that looks like machines into architecture that behaves like machines: An intelligence (based on the conceptual premise of a project and in the design of a system), as part of a process (related to the generative real of architecture) and as the object itself and its embedded intelligence.

Design Thinking

725-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Sarah E. Rottenberg

Creating new product concepts was once a specialized pursuit exclusively performed by design professionals in isolation from the rest of an organization. Today's products are developed in a holistic process involving a collaboration among many disciplines. Design thinking - incorporating processes, approaches, and working methods from traditional designers' toolkits - has become a way of generating innovative ideas to challenging problems and refining those ideas. Rapid prototyping techniques, affordable and accessible prototyping platforms, and an iterative mindset have enabled people to more reliably translate those ideas into implementable solutions. In this course, students will be exposed to these techniques and learn how to engage in a human-centered design process.

Experiments in Structures

731-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Mohamad Al Khayer

This course studies the relationships between geometric space and those structural systems that amplify tension. Experiments using the hand (touch and force) in coordination with the eye (sight and geometry) will be done during the construction and observation of physical models. Verbal, mathematical and computer models are secondary to the reality of the physical model. However these models will be used to give dimension and document the experiments. Team reports will serve as interim and final examinations. In typology, masonry structures in compression (e.g., vault and dome) correlate with "Classical" space, and steel or reinforced concrete structures in flexure (e.g., frame, slab and column) with "Modernist" space. We seek the spatial correlates to tensile systems of both textiles (woven or braided fabrics where both warp and weft are tensile), and baskets (where the warp is tensile and the weft is compressive). In addition to the experiments, we will examine Le Ricolais' structural models held by the Architectural Archives.

Daylighting

732-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Jessica Zofchak

This course aims to introduce fundamental daylighting concepts and tools to analyze daylighting design. The wide range of topics to be studied includes site planning, building envelope and shading optimization, passive solar design, daylight delivery methods, daylight analysis structure and results interpretation, and a brief daylighting and lighting design integration.

Material and Structural Intelligence

732-002, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Mark Nicol & Sameer Kumar

The semester long project will involve a gradual development of architectural ideas that are intimately informed by and centered on knowledge of Structure and Materiality. Employing both physical and digital simulations, the students will synthesize knowledge acquired in previous courses in structures, materials, and construction methods to develop architectural solutions within a carefully selected set of determinants.

Geometric Structural Design

732-003, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Masoud Akbarzadeh

Geometric structural design provides a comprehensive introduction to novel geometric methods of structural design based on 2D and 3D graphical statics. The primary emphasis of the course will be on developing a general understanding of the relationship between structural forms in equilibrium and the geometric representation of their internal and external forces. This link is the main apparatus for designing provocative structural forms using only geometric techniques rather than complicated algebraic/numerical methods. Moreover, special consideration will be given to materialization of the structural geometry and the proper fabrication techniques to construct the complex geometry of the structure. Note that this course is based on ongoing research in the field of 3D graphical statics, and therefore provides students with the opportunity to directly contribute to the current research in geometric methods of structural design. Familiarity with a parametric software is required, and code-writing ability is an asset. Particular attention will be given to structural model making and careful structural drawings. The outcomes of the course will become a primary collection of Polyhedral Structures Laboratory. Also, a unique summer research fellowship will be available for highly motivated students to build a one-to-one scale structural prototype based on the forms developed in the class.

Matter and Energy

732-004, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Franca Trubiano

This seminar/workshop promotes architectural innovation in the field of construction technology. Matter + Energy are the two fields of inquiry which guide and structure the course’s reading seminars and prototype workshops. Students will design and fabricate building related prototypes that productively respond to a well-documented and socially relevant environmental need. The creative and critical integration of Matter + Energy is the ambition of each prototype. Materials such as films, composites and plastic/polymers will be central to the investigation, as will the energy related topics of thermodynamics, light/heat studies and renewable energies. Invited design and building industry professionals will advise student teams and offer critical reviews of their process during the semester. Lastly, students will be introduced to performance design metrics used in evaluating the environmental impact of their material and energy choices, be they embodied energy, carbon emissions, or Life Cycle Assessments. More specifically, the seminar is dedicated to the development of a body of knowledge aligned with socially relevant ecological design principles. Students are encouraged to design and prototype innovative solutions for housing the world’s homeless. The physical constraints of the art of building are essential to the exercise when the construction of new technologies is positioned between the practice points of energy + matter; power and materials. Given the world’s energy resources are limited and fair acquisition is impossible given corporate and governmental power dynamics, the design of basic shelter for hundreds of millions of homeless must address this basic lack of fuel. Seeking inventive applications in renewable energy in the design of minimum existence housing is one goal of this seminar; the other, the innovative and intelligent application of materials to the same end. Students working in teams will develop their own Energy + Matter equation, actualizing a world of ideas and fabrication practices which give rise to socially relevant zero energy building prototypes.

Semi-Fictitious Realms

737-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Christopher McAdams

The pursuit of immersive digital experiences has long been a goal of the computing industry. Early wearable displays designed in the 1960s depicted simple three dimensional graphics in ways that had never been seen before. Through trial and error, digital pioneers reframed the relationship between user and machine, and over the last five decades, have made strides that advanced both the input and output mechanisms we are so comfortable with today. As a field, architecture has been reliant on these advancements to design and document buildings, but these tools still leave the architect removed from the physicality of the design, with their work depicted as 2D lines or 3D planes alone. This course will study the evolutionary advancements made that now allow us to fully inhabit digital worlds through Virtual Reality. Using the HTC Vive and Unreal Engine, students will generate immersive, photorealistic models of unbuilt architectural works and explore digital/physical interactivity. From the terraces of Paul Rudolph's Lower Manhattan Expressway to Boullees Cenotaph for Newton, the goal of this course is to breathe new life into places and spaces that have, until this time, never been built or occupied

New Approaches to an Architecture of Health

739-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Healthcare is taking on a new role in our society - with a refocusing from episodic care for those who are ill or symptomatic to providing life-long care geared towards maintaining wellness. These changes are evident across numerous areas of design, from wearable technologies that track and analyze, to large scale building initiatives that aim to create healthier environments and improve lives through strategic planning initiatives. A concrete, physical representation of this paradigm shift can be found within the hospital building itself and in the new manner in which hospitals are looking to serve their patients and care for their clinicians. Simultaneously both public and private spaces, hospitals are complex systems in which sickness, health, hospitality, technology, emergency, and community share space and compete for resource. In order to frame our present day understanding of the role of architecture (and design) in fostering health for individuals and within communities, this seminar will begin with an exploration of the historical and contemporary perspectives on the role of the architect and built environment on health. (Parallels between design and our ever-changing understanding of the biological, social, and environmental causes of sickness and disease will also be explored.) During this conversation, students will read articles and study recently constructed projects in order to examine the ways in which the architects approached these topics through built form. Following from this foundation, students will craft arguments for a new approach to the individual, the community, health, and architecture through a written response and architecturally designed scenario that argues for their perspective on how architecture can and should shape the health of those who inhabit it.

Architecture Design Innovation

741-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Ali Rahim

The mastery of techniques, whether in design, production or both, does not necessarily yield great architecture. As we all know, the most advanced techniques can still yield average designs. Architects are becoming increasingly adept producing complexity & integrating digital design and fabrication techniques into their design process - yet there are few truly elegant projects. Only certain projects that are sophisticated at the level of technique achieve elegance. This seminar explores some of the instances in which designers are able to move beyond technique, by commanding them to such a degree so as to achieve elegant aesthetics within the formal development of projects.

Form and Algorithm

743-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Cecil Balmond & Ezio Blasetti

The critical parameter will be to develop the potential beyond finite forms of explicit and parametric modeling towards non-linear algorithmic processes. We will seek novel patterns of organization, structure, and articulation as architectural expressions within the emergent properties of feedback loops and rule based systems. This seminar will accommodate both introductory and advanced levels. No previous scripting experience is necessary. It will consist of a series of introductory sessions, obligatory intensive workshops, lectures followed by suggested readings, and will gradually focus on individual projects. Students will be encouraged to investigate the limits of algorithmic design both theoretically and in practice through a scripting environment.

Ecology, Technology, and Design

751-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

William Braham

This course will examine the ecological nature of design at a range of scales, from the most intimate aspects of product design to the largest infrastructures, from the use of water in bathroom to the flow of traffic on the highway. It is a first principle of ecological design that everything is connected, and that activities at one scale can have quite different effects at other scales, so the immediate goal of the course will be to identify useful and characteristic modes of analyzing the systematic, ecological nature of design work, from the concept of the ecological footprint to market share. The course will also draw on the history and philosophy of technology to understand the particular intensity of contemporary society, which is now characterized by the powerful concept of the complex, self-regulating system. The system has become both the dominant mode of explanation and the first principle of design and organization.

MEBD Research Seminar

752-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

William Braham

Directed student research of selected topics in environmental building design. These topics will be further explored in ARCH 708: MEBD Studio and will provide the basis for the research documents developed with each student's design project. Course work will include lectures, discussions, weekly readings, and in-class exercises. Each student will be required to make a presentation and submit a research report.

Building Performance Simulation

753-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Faculty

The course provides students with an understanding of building design simulation methods, hands-on experience in using computer simulation models, and exploration of the technologies, underlying principles, and potential applications of simulation tools in architecture. Classroom lecturers are given each week, with a series of analysis projects to provide students with hands-on experience using computer models. This course is required and reserved for MEBD students.

Project Management

765-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Charles Capaldi

This course is an introduction to construction management, project management and various construction project delivery systems. In the study of construction delivery systems, we will examine the players, relationships and the advantages and disadvantages of different contractual and practical relationships, both on the construction site and at the tops of the various “paper piles”. Exercises and lectures will focus on developing perspectives into the various roles, needs and expectations of the many parties involved in a construction project and the management skills and techniques which help to bring a project to a successful conclusion.

Real Estate Development

768-402, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Alan Feldman

This course analyzes the development process and related investment risks and returns. Cases and case discussions are the dominant teaching method, with lectures, project tours(s) interspersed. Clear and decisive thinking is required and students will appreciate the many disciplines required to make a real estate project successful.

Professional Practice II

771-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Philip Ryan

Architectural Research

811-401, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

David Leatherbarrow

This course has three parts. All incoming students in the M.S. and Ph.D. programs should attend the first, and register for either the second or the third sections. The first part consists of a series of presentations by members of the Graduate Group in Architecture. The several presentations will address the topics the faculty are currently examining and will demonstrate different methods or styles of research. The other two sections of this course address basic concepts, texts, and methods in 1: history and theory, and 2) technology and simulation.

Qualifying Research

813-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Various Faculty

This is an independent study course for first year Ph.D. and M.S. students, supervised by a member of the Graduate Group in Architecture. A course of readings and advisors sessions throughout the semester will result in an independent study paper, which will also be used as the student's qualifying paper for the Qualifying Examination. This research paper will be prepared as if for scholarly publication.

Research Report

815-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Various Faculty

The candidate for the M.S. in Architecture degree shall prepare a research report in his or her subject of study. The topic of this report must be approved by an advisor. This report will be developed in the independent study courses, undertaken after the eight units of course work has been completed, normally in the summer semester. The purpose of these courses is to give the student an opportunity to synthesize their previous coursework at Penn. Course enrollment is by permit only.

Field Bibliography

851-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Various Faculty

This course is essentially an independent study, undertaken by doctoral students in preparation for the Candidacy Examination. This course should be taken in conjunction with ARCH 852 after all other courses have been completed. Normally a member of the student's Dissertation Committee supervises this course.

Dissertation Proposal

852-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Various Faculty

This course is essentially an independent study, undertaken by doctoral students in order to write the Proposal for the Dissertation. The Proposal is prepared before and defended during the Candidacy Examination. This course should be taken in conjunction with ARCH 852 after all other courses have been completed. Normally a member of the student's Dissertation Committee supervises this course.

Independent Study

999-001, August 28, 2018December 20, 2018

Faculty

This course enables student to undertake a self-directed study on a topic in Architecture under the supervision of a faculty member. Students are required to make a proposal for the study to the Department Chair, outlining the subject and method of investigation, and confirming the course supervisor at least two weeks prior to the beginning of the semester.